Animal form and function
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Animal Form and Function. Circulation and Gas Exchange Refer to pg 237-243 in Holtzclaw , Ch 42 in Campbell and media resources Also refer to AP Lab 10.

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Animal Form and Function

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Animal form and function

Animal Form and Function

Circulation and Gas ExchangeRefer to pg 237-243 in Holtzclaw, Ch 42 in Campbell and media resourcesAlso refer to AP Lab 10


Animal form and function

LEARNING GOAL: HOW DO ANIMALS EXCHANGE GASES AND TRANSPORT THEM INTERNALLY? WHAT ARE VARIOUS STRUCTURE/FUNCTION EXAMPLES ACROSS THE ANIMAL KINGDOM?


Learning intentions

Learning Intentions

You must know:

  • The circulatory vessels, heart chambers, and route of mammalian circulation.

  • How red bloods cells (RBCs) demonstrate the relationship of structure to function.

  • The general characteristics of a respiratory surface.

  • The pathway a molecule of oxygen takes from the air until it is picked up by the hemoglobin of a red blood cell.


The circulatory vessels heart chambers and route of mammalian circulation

The circulatory vessels, heart chambers, and route of mammalian circulation.

  • You must exchange gas, wastes, and nutrients at the cellular level by diffusion!

  • Two solutions:

    • 1) Keep all cells in contact with environment

      • Gastrovascular Cavity

    • 2) Move fluid around to tissues/cells for exchange

      • Circulatory System


Animal form and function

  • Gastrovascular Cavity


What are the three components of a circulatory system

What are the three components of a Circulatory System?

  • Circulatory System


What are the three components of a circulatory system1

What are the three components of a Circulatory System?

  • Blood (Circulatory Fluid)

  • Vessels (Tubes)

  • Heart (Pump)


In closed circulation you have

In closed circulation you have:

  • Arteries –

  • Capillaries –

  • Veins –


In closed circulation you have1

In closed circulation you have:

  • Arteries – carry blood away from heart

    • Thick, lots of smooth muscle

    • Arterioles are smaller

  • Capillaries – Gas/Nutrient/Waste Exchange

    • Microscopic

    • Walls are one-cell layer thick (significance?)

  • Veins – carry blood back to the heart

    • Have valves to prevent backflow

    • Venules are smaller

  • The heart has atria and ventricles


Try this true or false

Try This! True or False?

Capillary beds:

  • Are the site of nutrient and oxygen delivery to tissues

  • Have a total cross-sectional area much smaller than the total cross-sectional area of major arteries

  • Join arterioles and venules


Try this true or false1

Try This! True or False?

Capillary beds:

  • Are the site of nutrient and oxygen delivery to tissues TRUE!

  • Have a total cross-sectional area much smaller than the total cross-sectional area of major arteries FALSE!

  • Join arterioles and venules TRUE!


Variations

Variations!


Variations1

Variations!


Take a moment to read and understand the path of circulation on page 239 in holtzclaw

Take a moment to read and understand the Path of Circulation on Page 239 in Holtzclaw


The cardiac cycle systole contraction and diastole relaxation

The Cardiac Cycle – Systole (contraction) and Diastole (Relaxation)


The cardiac cycle read heart rate on page 240 in holtzclaw

The Cardiac Cycle – Read Heart Rate on Page 240 in Holtzclaw


Blood pressure read 42 2 on page 240 in holtzclaw

Blood Pressure: Read 42.2 on page 240 in Holtzclaw

  • Analyze the graphs


Blood pressure

Blood Pressure

  • What happens to cross-sectional surface area, velocity, and pressure as you move through the circulatory system?


Activity measuring blood pressure

Activity: Measuring Blood Pressure!

  • Experimental, not diagnostic!!!


Learning intentions1

Learning Intentions

Do you know?

  • The circulatory vessels, heart chambers, and route of mammalian circulation.


Learning intentions2

Learning Intentions

You must know:

  • The circulatory vessels, heart chambers, and route of mammalian circulation.

  • How red bloods cells (RBCs) demonstrate the relationship of structure to function.

  • The general characteristics of a respiratory surface.

  • The pathway a molecule of oxygen takes from the air until it is picked up by the hemoglobin of a red blood cell.


Red blood cells structure function

Red Blood Cells: Structure/Function

  • Biconcave disks

    • Why?

  • 250 million Hb/RBC

  • No nuclei!

    • Why?

  • No mitochondria!

    • Why?

  • Produced from stem cells in bone marrow (as are all blood cells)


Red blood cells structure function1

Red Blood Cells: Structure/Function

  • Biconcave disks

    • More surface area

  • 250 mill Hb/RBC

  • No nuclei!

    • More room for Hb

  • No mitochondria!

    • O2 not used up

  • Produced from stem cells in bone marrow (as are all blood cells)


The general characteristics of a respiratory surface

THE GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESPIRATORY SURFACE

  • Respiratory surface (skin, gills, tracheae, lungs) are:

    • Moist

    • High surface area/volume ratio (folding, branching)

    • Closely associated with vascular system of large animals


Breathing

Breathing


Control

Control

  • Sense carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion

  • Why hydrogen ion?

    • Chemistry of carbon dioxide


Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin

  • Globular protein

    • Subunits?

    • Where is it made?

  • Can change its affinity for oxygen by slightly changing shape (Bohr Shift)

  • Can carry oxygen, carbon dioxide, or hydrogen ions!

  • Carbon dioxide usually carried as bicarbonate ions


To do

To do:

BioFlix!!

  • Read Holtzclaw and do all activities in chapter 42 media resources (interactive animations)

    Do you know?

  • The circulatory vessels, heart chambers, and route of mammalian circulation.

  • How red bloods cells (RBCs) demonstrate the relationship of structure to function.

  • The general characteristics of a respiratory surface.

  • The pathway a molecule of oxygen takes from the air until it is picked up by the hemoglobin of a red blood cell.


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