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Texture Measurement . Principles. Which test to use?. Many food texture measurement techniques are available Many are empirical. They are not based on a theoretical approach; rather, they have been tested and seem to correlate with a useful property. Classifications.

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Presentation Transcript
which test to use
Which test to use?
  • Many food texture measurement techniques are available
  • Many are empirical. They are not based on a theoretical approach; rather, they have been tested and seem to correlate with a useful property
classifications
Classifications
  • Many food systems and texture measurements exist
  • Different classification schemes have been proposed
1 type of commodity tested
1. Type of Commodity Tested
  • Cereal, meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruit, dairy, beverages, juices, nuts, legumes, oilseeds, etc
  • Different industries have tended to develop their own unique methods for testing products
2 food type matz 1962
Liquids

Gels

Fibrous foods

Turgid cell clusters

Unctuous foods

Friable structures

Glassy foods

Gas-filled vesicles

2. Food Type (Matz, 1962)
food type amerine 1965
Food Type: (Amerine, 1965)
  • Liquids
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Meats
  • Other foods
food type sone 1972
Food Type: (Sone, 1972)
  • Liquid foods
  • Gel-like foods
  • Fibriform foods
  • Cellular-form foods
  • Edible oils and fats
  • Powdered foods
objective tests
OBJECTIVE TESTS
  • Well-defined, repeatable, physical interpretations
  • May or may not correlate with sensor texture
    • Tests at small deformations
    • Mastication involves combinations of compression, shearing, tension
    • Chewing involves transient temperatures
    • Mastication introduces saliva and enzymes
    • Sensory texture evaluation may involve a combination of sensory data
slide10

However, perceived texture properties are rooted in objective properties of food

  • A thin beverage will have a small Newtonian viscosity
  • A viscoelastic solid with high ductility may be perceived as chewy
  • Objective tests may also provide information about molecular structure and effects of processing
fundamental tests
Fundamental Tests
  • Measure specific rheological properties

Shear modulus Viscosity

Poisson’s ratio Storage modulus

Complex viscosity Loss modulus

Shear rate dependency

Creep Stress relaxation

  • As measured by viscometry, DMA, force/distance curves
empirical tests
Empirical Tests
  • Measure properties that are hard to define, but correlate with sensory, quality, or processing parameters
  • Advantages
    • Correlate with texture parameter
    • Quick and easy
    • Inexpensive
  • Disadvantages
    • Poor defintion of property
    • Limited standards
    • Limited to particular commodities
imitative tests
Imitative Tests
  • Mimic conditions uner which food is used
    • Texturometer, TPA simulate chewing
    • Farinograph imitates working of bread dough
objective tests further breakdown
Objective Tests:Further Breakdown
  • Which variables are measured
    • Force
    • Distance
    • Time
    • Energy
    • Ratios of these
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