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Ancient Mesopotamia. Geography. Land Between 2 Rivers. Tigris and Euphrates rivers are in SW Asia= Middle East S tart in mts. of Turkey SE through Iraq to Persian Gulf Region is called Mesopotamia, “land between the rivers” P rovided water and a way to travel. Fertile Soil.

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Land between 2 rivers
Land Between 2 Rivers

  • Tigris and Euphrates rivers are in SW Asia= Middle East

    • Start in mts. of Turkey

    • SE through Iraq to Persian Gulf

  • Region is called Mesopotamia, “land between the rivers”

    • Provided water and a way to travel


Fertile soil
Fertile Soil

  • Rain and melting snow swelled rivers

    • Overflowing onto floodplain

    • Depositing fine soil= land fertile

      • Good for crops


Climate
Climate

  • Semi Arid climate—hot summers, less than 10” of annual rainfall

  • Crops grew b/c of fertile soil= rivers

  • Farming villages in S Mesopotamia by 4000 B.C.


Floods and droughts
Floods and Droughts

  • Annual floods= unpredictable

    • Sometime between April and June

    • Didn’t know when to plant or how big flood would be

  • Droughts= lowered river levels

    • Hard to water crops; ppl starved if crops failed


Irrigation
Irrigation

  • 6000 B.C., irrigation canals carried water from rivers to fields

  • Built dams to block floodwaters


Finding resources
Finding Resources

  • Mud Houses and Walls

    • Lacked building materials

  • Few natural barriers= easy to invade

    • Other ppl often stole from or conquered Mesopotamians

    • Built mud walls for protection


Finding resources1
Finding Resources

  • Traded their surplus grain for stone, wood, metal

  • Digging canals, building walls, trading were done continuously

    • Leaders organized groups for work


Quick review
Quick Review

  • What made Mesopotamia a good region for farming?

  • How did Mesopotamians water their crops during droughts?

  • Why was trade important in Mesopotamia?


Activity map of mesopotamia
Activity: Map of Mesopotamia

  • Use the labeled map to label the blank map

  • Label: continents, mts, rivers, seas, city-states, etc…

  • Color in oceans and land and shade in the region of Mesopotamia


Ancient mesopotamia1

Ancient Mesopotamia

The First Civilization


Culture grows more complex
Culture Grows More Complex

  • Rise of agriculture= villages

  • Villages= city-states

    • Society and culture grew more complex= Civilization

  • 3000 B.C., 1st began in Sumer

    • S Mesopotamia


Traits of civilization
Traits of Civilization

  • Advanced Cities

    • Store surplus, trade, many jobs, large temples

  • Specialized Workers—jobs requiring special skills

    • Improve quality of work

  • Ppl must cooperate and organize their society

    • Priests


Traits of civilizations
Traits of Civilizations

  • Complex Institutions—religion, gov’t, schools, armies

    • Purpose= help society

  • Record Keeping—societies must keep records

    • World’s first system of writing= Cuneiform


Traits of civilizations1
Traits of Civilizations

  • Advanced Technology

    • Canals

    • New tools= bronze

      • Mixture of copper and tin


Sumerian city states
Sumerian City States

  • Cities= centers of society, country= ppl lived

    • Cities ruled surrounding lands/villages

  • City-state—self-ruled community

    • Sumer=12 city-states


Sumerian city states1
Sumerian City States

  • Slow-growing Sumerian cities had narrow, winding streets

    • Gates let ppl in and out


Sumerian city states2
Sumerian City States

  • Most important building= temple

    • Ziggurats

  • Ziggurat was center of city life

    • Controlled stored surplus

  • Priests ended up controlling= Theocracy


Social classes
Social Classes

  • Unequal= define who has power

  • King/priests were at top

    • Upper class included landowners, gov’t officials, merchants

  • Most were the in-between class= farmers, artisans

  • Slaves made up lowest class


Sumerian religion
Sumerian Religion

  • Polytheism—belief in many gods

    • Created and ruled world

  • Each city-state worshiped own god

    • 1000s of lesser gods

    • Looked and acted like ppl


Sumerian religion1
Sumerian Religion

  • Protected against flood, drought, invasion

  • Priests= please gods to protect cities

    • Ppl accepted priest as cities leaders


Sumerian religion2
Sumerian Religion

  • Gods= landowners who created humans to work for them

    • Ppl prayed, made offerings, participated in rituals

  • Believed souls of dead—gloomy underworld

    • Hard life made them expect an unhappy afterlife


New leaders
New Leaders

  • City-states were attacked

  • Ppl asked powerful men for protection= Kings

    • Ran city-states full-time

  • 2375 B.C., Ruled by a single king= Monarchy

    • Priests still tried to please gods


Quick review1
Quick Review

  • Why was Sumer a good example of civilization?

  • What was life like in Sumerian cities?

  • How did kings take over as rulers of Sumer?


Activity create your civilization
Activity: Create Your Civilization

  • Groups of 4, Write up your own civilization

  • Required

    • Location: Where? Size? Geographic features? Climate?

    • Population

    • Development of liberties: freedoms of speech, press, religion, voting rights, etc

    • Development of government to: monarchy, oligarchy, theocracy, republic, etc

    • Religion: monotheistic or polytheistic, give details

    • Tools

    • Social roles and jobs

  • Bonus

    • Write a myth from your civilization

    • Develop the alphabet or other writing system of your civilization


Activity create your civilization1
Activity: Create Your Civilization

  • Create a visual displaying characteristics of your civilization on poster board

  • Each requirement= 5 points

  • Bonus= 5 extra points

  • ORGANIZATION MATTERS

  • DEATAILS MATTER

Names

Date

Assignment: Create Your Civ.

Pittlandiya

Location:

Present day Southwestern Pennsylvania, Valley of the Penguin Mountains to the Steeler Gulf, covers an area the size of Rhode Island, etc..

Population:

4,500



Building the first empires
Building the First Empires

  • Sumerian city-state kings fought from 3000 to 2000 B.C.

  • Sargon of Akkad created the world’s 1st empire

    • N & S Mesopotamia around 2350 B.C.

    • empire—many different peoples, lands controlled by one ruler


Building the first empires1
Building the First Empires

  • Sargonʼs empire= AkkadianEmpire

    • Fertile Crescent

  • Conquests spread Akkadian ideas, culture, writing system


Building the first empires2
Building the First Empires

  • Empires encourage trade and may bring peace to their ppls

    • ppl of diff. cultures share ideas, technology, customs


Babylonian empire
Babylonian Empire

  • AkkadianEmpire lasted 200 yrs

  • 2000 B.C., Amorites invaded Sumer

    • Babylon= capital


Babylonian empire1
Babylonian Empire

  • Trade was critical

    • Natural resources= scarce

    • Agricultural goods=surplus

  • Trading system developed= manufactured goods and raw materials

    • Vital to the economy and the culture


Quick review2
Quick Review

  • Who created the world’s first empire? What was it called?

  • What do empires contribute to society?

  • Why was trade so important in the Babylonian Empire?


Activity
Activity

  • Use the resource map to answer the following

  • Which materials had to be imported in sea-worthy boats?

  • Which materials could be imported using riverboats?

  • Which materials had to be brought overland?

  • Which materials came from the greatest distances?

  • Which materials would be relatively easy to transport? Relatively difficult?


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