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Energy Flow in the Biosphere, Chapter 3-1 & 3-2. http://www.geog.uni-heidelberg.de/~ttavk/weltkarten/globen/1997-1998-biosphere-Nasa.jpg. INTEREST GRABBER- THINK BACK TO CHAPTER 7. ________ __________  ___________. MOLECULES. ORGANELLES. ATOMS. IMAGE SOURCES: see last slide.

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Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

Energy Flow in the Biosphere, Chapter 3-1 & 3-2

http://www.geog.uni-heidelberg.de/~ttavk/weltkarten/globen/1997-1998-biosphere-Nasa.jpg


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

INTEREST GRABBER- THINK BACK TO CHAPTER 7

________ __________  ___________

MOLECULES

ORGANELLES

ATOMS

IMAGE SOURCES: see last slide


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

____________  ____________ 

CELLS

TISSUES

Similar cells working together

IMAGE SOURCES: see last slide


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

___________  __________ ___________

ORGAN SYSTEMS

ORGANS

ORGANISM

Different tissuesworking together

Different organsworking together

IMAGE SOURCES: see last slide


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

___________________________________

ORGANISMS

POPULATIONS

COMMUNITY

SAME SPECIESLIVING TOGETHER

IN AN AREA

Ex: “herd”

DIFFERENT

POPULATIONS

LIVING TOGETHER

IN AN AREA

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall;2006


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

_______________________ _____________

ECOSYSTEMS

BIOMES

BIOSPHERE

All the organisms that

live in a place together

with their NON-living

environment

Group of ecosystems

that have same climate

and similar communities

The portion of the planet

in which all life exists

IMAGE SOURCES: see last slide


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

SPECIES

Organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring = _____________

http://suedafrika.net/bluegifs/twooryx.jpg


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

http://environnement.ecoles.free.fr/Site-chevaux/images/etalon_quarter_horse_genuine_redskin.jpg

http://www.caribbeanart.com/art/j-portrait-donkey.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mule

EX: Horse X donkey = mule

64 chromosomes

62 chromosomes

63 chromosomes

Horses and donkeys are different species.

If you breed them, the result is a mule

which can NOT have offspring!


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

The scientific study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment = ______________

The portion of the planet in which all life exists = _________________

(includes land, water, atmosphere)

ECOLOGY

BIOSPHERE

Extends from about

8 km above the Earth’s surface

to 11 km below the ocean’s surface

http://jaeger.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/Images/Topographic/Whole_Earth/Earth_100.jpg


What shapes an ecosystem

WHAT SHAPES AN ECOSYSTEM?

BIOTIC FACTORS

__________________

All the living things an

organism interacts with

__________________

All the non-living things that

affect an organism

Ex: climate, temperature, sunlight

soil, humidity, wind

ABIOTIC FACTORS

Images from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

HABITAT

__________________

= The area where an organism lives

A rattlesnake lives in a desert in the American Southwest

http://animals.timduru.org/dirlist/snake/animalwild089-RattleSnake-FaceCloseup.jpg

http://www.rvstogophx.com/images/arizona_desert_sm.jpg


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

NICHE

_____________

= place it lives PLUS the

_____________ & ______________

interactions it has in that place

NICHE includes: Where it lives PLUS . . .

What it eats? What eats it?

Where in the habitat it lives?In a tree, in a pond,underground

Its actions… hibernating, migrating, etcWhen & how it reproduces?

biotic

abiotic


Habitat vs niche

http://www.electricwomen.com/hunterspoint/images/21-street-sign-moreell.jpg

HABITAT vs NICHE?

Habitat is like an

organism’s ____________

Niche is like an

organism’s _Role in the Community

address

http://resmedicinae.sourceforge.net/logos/doctor.png

http://www.michcampgrounds.com/yogibears/yogi-picnic-cartoon.jpg

http://www.formaui.org/kamalii/critters.htm


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

NO TWO SPECIES CAN

SHARE THE SAME NICHE !

Competitive exclusion principle

= ______________________________

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


The earth is solar powered the energy cannot be created or destroyed it just changes forms

The Earth is SOLAR POWERED! The energy cannot be created or destroyed. It just changes forms.

ALL LIVING THINGS USE ENERGY

_____________ is the main source of energy for life on Earth.

SUNLIGHT

http://www.animation-station.com/smileys/index.php?page=17


Autotrophs producers can make their own food

AUTOTROPHS = PRODUCERSCan make their own food

ALL LIVING THINGS USE ENERGY

Most autotrophs use _______________

to capture solar energy

Main producers on land

= green plants

In water = algae

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

BIOLOGY; MIller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

absence of light

Some autotrophs can make own food in the ____________________

They use energy stored in

________________ of

______________________to produce

carbohydrates = ___________________

Ex: Bacteria that

live in HOSTILE places

Like volcano vents, hot springs,

marshes

chemical bonds

INORGANIC MOLECULES

CHEMOSYNTHESIS

BIOLOGY; MIller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Heterotrophs get energy from consuming other organisms

CONSUMERS

HETEROTROPHS = ____________Get energy from consuming other organisms

http://www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/ecology/images/fishcartoon.gif


Heterotrophs consumers

HETEROTROPHS = CONSUMERS

HERBIVORES

________________ =

eat only plants

________________ =

eat only animals

________________ =

eat both plants & animals

CARNIVORES

OMNIVORES

http://gallery.hd.org/_exhibits/natural-science/_more2003/_more09/elephant-eating-greenery-in-Addo-Park-Eastern-Cape-South-Africa-2-WL.jpg

http://personal.ecu.edu/wuenschk/rabbit-wolf.gif

http://www.rodsguide.com/bears/eating.jpg


Heterotrophs consumers1

HETEROTROPHS = CONSUMERS

DETRITIVORES

________________ =

feed on plant & animal remains

EX: mites, earthworms,

snails, crabs

________________ =

break down and absorb organic matter

EX: bacteria & fungi

DECOMPOSERS

http://montereybayphotos.com/images/nature/2.jpg

http://www.fwnp.com/bracket-fungi.htm


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

Energy flows through an ecosystem in a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by being eaten

CONSUMERS(Heterotrophs)

________________

_________________

= _________________

PRODUCERS(Autotrophs)

FOOD CHAIN

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/Faculty/Dana/foodchain.jpg


In most ecosystems feeding relationships are more complex

Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

In most ecosystems feeding relationships are more complex

A ______________ links ALL the food chains in an ecosystem together.

FOOD WEB


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

TROPHIC LEVEL

Each step in a food chain or web =

_______________

______________

ALWAYS

make up the

________

trophic level.

PRODUCERS

FIRST

http://home.insightbb.com/~g.mager/Pond/Ecosystem.htll


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

Lower levels must be

bigger to support the

level above.

Only about_____ of

the energy from

each level is passed

on.

Why only four levels and not five???

10%

http://home.insightbb.com/~g.mager/Pond/Ecosystem.htll


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

Some energy is used

for life processes

such as growth,

development,

movement,

metabolism,

transport, and

reproduction.

The rest is

lost as ________

HEAT

http://home.insightbb.com/~g.mager/Pond/Ecosystem.htll


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

WHAT DO CELLS USE ENERGY FOR ?

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Na+ - K + PUMPEndocytosis

Exocytosis

Animation from: http://www.lionden.com/cell_animations.htm

See a movie

Animation from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/cell-movement.html


What do cells use energy for

WHAT DO CELLS USE ENERGY FOR ?

Movement

Synthesis of biomolecules

Meiosis: http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/anm/

Cilia: http://www.sk.lung.ca/content.cfm?edit_realword=hwbreathe

Replication: http://www.beyondbooks.com/lif71/4c.asp

Transcription:http://www.wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/mRNA.gif

Translation:


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

Growth and

Development

REPRODUCTION

Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp


What happens when the food web changes

What Happens When The Food Web Changes?


What happens when the food web changes1

What Happens When the Food Web Changes?

  • Everything is connected in an ecosystem

  • If one part of the food web changes it has a domino effect on the other species

  • Can cause increase and decrease in other populations

  • Is one species more important than another?


Ways organisms interact 4 2

http://www.dimijianimages.com/Aggression-defense-page4/vultures.jpg

http://www.mark-ju.net/wildlife/images/monkey03.jpg

WAYS ORGANISMS INTERACT4-2

http://www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/ecology/images/fishcartoon.gif

http://www.uark.edu/depts/agripub/Publications/Agnews/mosquito.jpg


Ways organisms interact

Ways organisms interact

COMPETITION

______________________

Between SAME and DIFFERENT kinds of organisms Compete with each other for available resources

__________________________

Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms

Hunt and kill other organisms to supply their energy needs

__________________________

Between SAME kind of organisms

Live together and help each other

__________________________

Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms

live in close association with another kind of organism

PREDATION

COOPERATION

SYMBIOSIS


What is a resource

WHAT IS A RESOURCE?

____________________________________________

Examples:

________________________

Anything needed by an organism for life

Nutrients, water, light, space


Competition

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available

resources.

FOOD

http://www.knology.net/~sgoswald/Eating.jpg

http://www.harcourtschool.com/glossary/science/images/gr3/community3.jpg


Competition1

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available resources:

shelter

http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Images/LBUN-5K538R/$File/fox_adultandcub.jpg

http://www.gdccc.org/Records/EOY2004/NSEOY.htm


Competition2

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available

resources

mates

http://www.wasatchcomputers.net/gallery/elk_fight.jpg

http://www.biocrawler.com/w/images/thumb/3/34/200px-Peacock_courting_peahen.jpg


Competition3

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available

resources:

space/territory

http://www.elise.com/weblog/photos/prairie-dogs.jpg

Prairie dogs - 5 to 35 per acre

Mountain lion- 1 male per 50-300 sq. mi

http://www.rilanationalpark.org/gr.phtml?dir=../../pictures/in_text&img=/65_1180.jpg


Competition4

COMPETITION

Organisms in an ecosystem have to

compete with each other for available

resources:

LIGHT

http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/chloroplasts.html

http://www.csjbacau.ro/gallery/images/Beech%20Tree%20Forest%20in%20Slanic%20Moldova.jpg


Ways organisms interact1

Ways organisms interact

___________________

Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms

Hunt and kill other organisms to supply their energy needs

PREDATION

http://www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/ecology/images/fishcartoon.gif


Predation

PREDATION

Organisms in an ecosystem that capture and eat other organisms to supply their energy needs

http://personal.ecu.edu/wuenschk/rabbit-wolf.gif

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/images/wspred_6.jpg


Interdependence

INTERDEPENDENCE

All living and non-living things in an

ecosystem are interconnected and changing

even one thing impacts the whole ecosystem.

When one tugs at a single thing in nature,

he finds it attached to the rest of the world. 

~John Muir, naturalist, Sierra Club founder


Competition5

COMPETITION

If resources are scarce, some organisms will starve and populations will decrease.

If resources become more plentiful, populations will increase.

Competition in nature often results

in a winner and a loser

. . . with the loser failing to survive!


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

If a nutrient is in _____________OR __________________

it will LIMIT the growth of the

population= _____________

SHORT SUPPLY

CYCLES SLOWLY

LIMITING FACTOR

During this drought,

there was not enough food

available and many kangaroos

starved.

http://www.wspa-international.org/exhibition/gallery/large_DeadKenyan%20droughtSPANA.jpg


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

REMEMBER: EVERYTHING IS CONNECTED !

BIOLOGY; MIller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006

A decrease in the prey population means some predators will starve.

Fewer predators mean prey population will increase.

Increase in prey means more food for predators.

Predator population will increase until there is not enough food . . .

and the cycle repeats itself.


Limiting nutrient

LIMITING NUTRIENT

The short

supply of a

limiting

nutrient keeps

the population

in check.

When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input

of limiting nutrient (ie.,fertilizer runoff) the

population increases dramatically = ___________

http://www.greenfacts.org/images/glossary/algae-bloom.jpg

ALGAL BLOOM


Ways organisms interact2

Ways organisms interact

COOPERATION

__________________

Between SAME kind of organisms

Live together and help each other

http://www.mark-ju.net/wildlife/images/monkey03.jpg


Cooperation same species live together in groups ex herds packs colonies families etc

COOPERATIONSame species live together in groupsEX: herds, packs, colonies, families, etc

Share food &

childcare responsibilitiesGroom each other

Take care of sick

http://www.kenyatravelideas.com/african-elephants.html

http://www.sphoto.com/medium/meercats37.jpg

http://people.uleth.ca/~d.rendall/groom4.jpg


Cooperation same species live together in groups ex herds packs colonies families etc1

COOPERATIONSame species live together in groupsEX: herds, packs, colonies, families, etc

Hunt in packs

Provide protection

http://www.knology.net/~sgoswald/Eating.jpg

http://rosswarner.com/zebras1.jpg


Ways organisms interact3

Ways organisms interact

SYMBIOSIS

__________________________

Between DIFFERENT kinds of organisms

Live in close association with another kind of organism

http://www.zahnersatz.com/english/library/symbiosis.jpg


3 kinds of symbiosis

3 KINDS of SYMBIOSIS

MUTUALISM

______________________

Both organisms benefit

______________________

One organism benefits;

Other is neither harmed nor helped

_____________________

One organism benefits;

Other is harmed in some way

COMMENSALISM

PARASITISM


Mutualism good for me good for you

MUTUALISM“Good for me - Good for you”

Birds eat parasites living

on the hides of giraffes and rhinos while enjoying protection from predators.

Groomed animals lose their pests.

http://www.imbt.org/science.htm

http://www.hugheshome.net/jon/africa02/images/rhino_bird_JPG.jpg


Mutualism good for me good for you1

MUTUALISM“Good for me - Good for you”

http://www.providence.edu/bio/faculty/adams/LECTUREProvCollegeMutualism.html

Insects transfer pollen

between plants as they

gather nectar for food.

http://www.yksd.com/DistanceEdCourses/YKSDbiology/lessons/SecondQuarterLessons/Chapter5/5-5/images/3-way-mutualism.jpg


Mutualism good for me good for you2

MUTUALISM“Good for me - Good for you”

Clown fish gets protection from enemies by hiding out in poisonous sea anemones

http://www.zahnersatz.com/english/library/symbiosis.jpg

Sea anemone gets

scraps of leftover

food dropped

by fish


Commensalism

COMMENSALISM

“Good for me - Doesn’t bother you”

http://www.geology.wmich.edu/gillespie/g322/Chapters/C16shark.gif

Pilot fish receive scraps of food dropped by shark;

Shark is neither harmed nor helped


Commensalism1

COMMENSALISM

“Good for me - Doesn’t bother you”

http://www.abyssal.com/meeks/images/hermit_crab.jpg

Hermit crabs make homes in shells abandoned by snails;

Snail is not harmed by crab


Parasitism

PARASITISM

http://www.geology.wmich.edu/gillespie/g322/Chapters/C16parasitism.whale.gif

“Good for me - Hurts you”

Barnacles are crustaceans that attach to the surface of whales

and feed on their skin and fluids; Whale is harmed


Parasitism1

PARASITISM

http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/guineafowltickphotos.htm

“Good for me - Hurts you”

Tick feeds on dog’s blood;

Dog has discomfort, can get diseases/infection from bite


Parasitism2

PARASITISM

“Good for me - Hurts you”

Tapeworms absorb food by living inside host intestine;

host is harmed

http://www.biology.ucok.edu/AnimalBiology/Platyhelminthes/tapeworms.jpg


South dakota core science standards

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to

oneanother and the environment.

9-12.L.3.1. Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems.

  • Define populations, communities, ecosystems, niches

    and symbiotic relationships.

  • Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions.

    Examples:

    Dormancy and migrationFluctuation in available resources (water, food, shelter)Biogeochemical cycles Energy flowCooperation and competition in ecosystems


South dakota core science standards1

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one another

and the environment.

9-12.L.3.1. Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems.

  • Define populations, communities, ecosystems, niches and symbiotic relationships.

  • Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions.

    Examples:

    Fluctuation in available resources (water, food, shelter)Energy flow


Core high school life earth science performance descriptors

Core High School Life/Earth SciencePerformance Descriptors


Image bibliography

IMAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/summer2004/lect02.htm

Paint image by Riedell

Paint image by Riedell

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCHEM2.html#Organic%20molecules

http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/BIOL115/Wyatt/Biochem/Carbos/Carb_poly.gif

http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.html

http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0076.JPG

http://classes.kumc.edu/som/bioc801/lectures/images/mem01-08.gif

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_nucleus.html


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpe

http://www.ncu.edu.tw/~ls/graph/faculty_pictures/whole_time/SLC/SLC_lab-1.jpg

http://www.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp/~anatomy2/BON/1016A03.jpg

http://www.carolguze.com/text/102-19-tissuesorgansystems.shtml

http://academic.pg.cc.md.us/~aimholtz/AandP/206_ONLINE/Immune/Innate_Images/cilia.jpg

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookAnimalTS.html

http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147b.gif


Energy flow in the biosphere chapter 3 1 3 2

http://vilenski.org/science/safari/fungus/fungus.html

http://www.proctitispages.force9.co.uk/

http://www.harrythecat.com/graphics/

http://bestanimations.com

http://www.inclusive.co.uk/downloads/images/pics2/tree.gif

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm


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