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17 th May, 2013 CNRS INEE - FRE3484 BioMEA , Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, FRANCE

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45th International Liège Colloquium

Estimation of primary production at high frequency using multi-parametric relationships between PAM measurements and carbon incorporation

17th May, 2013

CNRS INEE - FRE3484 BioMEA, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, FRANCE

C.Napoléon, P.Claquin

Why the primary production ?

Every trophic level relies on Primary production

Phytoplankton

Why the English Channel ?

English Channel a strategic area only few data

Position of stations used for the validation of the MIRO&CO model. Lacroix et al. (2007)

Method

Normandie Brittany Ferries

OuistrehamPortsmouth

Portsmouth

Ouistreham

Method

Normandie Brittany Ferries

OuistrehamPortsmouth

- 4 m

Method

Light

Temperature

Turbidity

Salinity

Multi-parameters Probe

Nutrients (DIN, DIP, DSi)

Chla

Suspension Matter

Phytoplankton species (pico, nano, micro)

Water flow

Method

The PAM method

Calvin cycle

Carbohydrates

CO2

H+

Fluorescence variation of the PSII

Production of electrons

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

NADPH+ H+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

Method

Nutrients (DIN, DIP, DSi)

Chla

SPM

Phytoplankton species (pico, nano micro)

Temperature

Turbidity

Salinity

Multi-parameters Probe

Dark tank 100ml

Solenoid valves interface

emitter-detector unit

Water flow

PAM Control Unit

Solenoid valve

8

Method

Fast (10 minutes)

Economic

Non invasive

Automatic

The PAM method

ETRmax

Maximal electron transport rate

α

Maximal light utilization efficiency

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

OuistrehamPortsmouth

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

November 2009

December 2010

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

High frequency

BUT Production of electrons!

NOT Carbon incorporation!

Portsmouth (GB)

Can we use high frequency ETR measurements to estimate carbon incorporation at high frequency?

Ouistreham (FR)

November 2009

December 2010

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

13C

Carbon incorporation

Calvin cycle

Calvin cycle

Carbohydrates

H+

Fluorescence variation of the PSII

Production of electrons

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

NADPH+ H+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

The photosynthetron

13C

Light

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

PAM

13C

Advantages

Advantage

- Fast (10min)
- Economic
- Non invasive
- Automatic

- Gives access to the carbon incorporation

Disavantages

Disadvantage

- Requires a long time of incubation (3h)
- Costly

- Does not give access to the carbon incorporation

High frequency measurements

Low frequency measurements

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

13C

Carbon incorporation

Calvin cycle

Calvin cycle

Carbohydrates

H+

Fluorescence variation of the PSII

Production of electrons

ATP

ADP+Pi

Factor ?

NADP+

NADPH+ H+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Relationship?

C = f(ETR)

C

C

ETR

ETR

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

What kind of relationship?

Logarithmic relationship

Photoregulation at high light to protect the cell from photoinhibition by damages

Alternative electron sinks

-cyclic electron flow around PSI, PSII

-Mehler reaction

-Reduction of nitrate

-Photorespiration

More electrons needed to fix 1 mole of C.

C = 0.1503 + 0.0496 * ln(ETR)

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

What kind of relationship?

Influence of physicochemical and biological parameters?

C = f(ETR) + a*v1 + b*v2 + ….

Physicochemical parameters?

Biological parameters?

Logarithmic relationship

In situ

C = 0.1503 + 0.0496 * ln(ETR)

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Influence of physicochemical and biological parameters?

C = 0.2082+0.0496 * ln(ETR) - (0.319 * DIP) + (0.000166 * PAR)

C = 0.2082+0.0496 * ln(ETR)

In situ

- (0.319 * DIP) + (0.000166 * PAR)

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Can we use high frequency ETR measurements to estimate the carbon incorporation at high resolution

YES !

Portsmouth (GB)

BUT…

However, difficulties to discriminate parameters in in situstudies

DIP and light = good integrator of other parameters?

Ouistreham (FR)

November 2009

December 2010

C = 0.2082+0.0496 * ln(ETR) - (0.319 * DIP) + (0.000166 * PAR)

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

OuistrehamPortsmouth

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

January 2010

December 2010

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

OuistrehamPortsmouth

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

January 2010

December 2010

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

OuistrehamPortsmouth

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

January 2010

December 2010

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

OuistrehamPortsmouth

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

January 2010

December 2010

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

= 0.2082+0.0496 * ln(ETR) - (0.319 * DIP) + (0.000166 * PAR)

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Small cells = high surface/volume

Low DIP concentrations

High ᶲC.e

DIP = good integrator of the effect of small cells on ᶲC.e

Main results

The shape of the relationship between PAM measurements and carbon incorporation is logarithmic due to alternative electron sinks at high light.

Using a multi-parametric model, we can obtain a good estimation of the carbon incorporation at a high spatio-temporal scale, coupling low frequency measurements of carbon incorporation, and high frequency measurements of ETR.

The study also highlights the importance of taking into account the functional group into the estimation of C.e and particularly the dynamics of small cells.

Alternative electrons sinks

C

C

ETR

ETR

Thankyou for your attention !!

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

RUBISCO

Calvin cycle

Oxygenase

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

NADPH+ H+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

RUBISCO

Calvin cycle

Oxygenase

Cyclicelectron flow around PSI

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

Cyclicelectron flow around PSII

H+

NADPH+ H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

RUBISCO

Calvin cycle

Oxygenase

Mehler reaction

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

H+

NADPH+ H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

H+

ATPase

O2

STROMA

Fd

O2-

H2O2

H2O

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

RUBISCO

Calvin cycle

Oxygenase

Nitrate reductase

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

H+

NADPH+ H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

H+

ATPase

NO-3

STROMA

Fd

NO-2

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

Calvin cycle

RUBISCO

Photorespiration

CO2

Oxygenase

O2

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

H+

NADPH+ H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+