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45 th International Liège Colloquium. Estimation of primary production at high frequency using multi-parametric relationships between PAM measurements and carbon incorporation. 17 th May, 2013 CNRS INEE - FRE3484 BioMEA , Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, FRANCE

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slide1

45th International Liège Colloquium

Estimation of primary production at high frequency using multi-parametric relationships between PAM measurements and carbon incorporation

17th May, 2013

CNRS INEE - FRE3484 BioMEA, Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, FRANCE

[email protected]

C.Napoléon, P.Claquin

slide2

Why the primary production ?

Every trophic level relies on Primary production

Phytoplankton

slide3

Why the English Channel ?

English Channel a strategic area only few data

Position of stations used for the validation of the MIRO&CO model. Lacroix et al. (2007)

slide4

Method

Normandie Brittany Ferries

Ouistreham Portsmouth

Portsmouth

Ouistreham

slide5

Method

Normandie Brittany Ferries

Ouistreham Portsmouth

- 4 m

slide6

Method

Light

Temperature

Turbidity

Salinity

Multi-parameters Probe

Nutrients (DIN, DIP, DSi)

Chla

Suspension Matter

Phytoplankton species (pico, nano, micro)

Water flow

slide7

Method

The PAM method

Calvin cycle

Carbohydrates

CO2

H+

Fluorescence variation of the PSII

Production of electrons

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

NADPH+ H+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

slide8

Method

Nutrients (DIN, DIP, DSi)

Chla

SPM

Phytoplankton species (pico, nano micro)

Temperature

Turbidity

Salinity

Multi-parameters Probe

Dark tank 100ml

Solenoid valves interface

emitter-detector unit

Water flow

PAM Control Unit

Solenoid valve

8

slide9

Method

Fast (10 minutes)

Economic

Non invasive

Automatic

The PAM method

ETRmax

Maximal electron transport rate

α

Maximal light utilization efficiency

slide10

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Ouistreham Portsmouth

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

November 2009

December 2010

slide11

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

High frequency

BUT Production of electrons!

NOT Carbon incorporation!

Portsmouth (GB)

Can we use high frequency ETR measurements to estimate carbon incorporation at high frequency?

Ouistreham (FR)

November 2009

December 2010

slide12

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

13C

Carbon incorporation

Calvin cycle

Calvin cycle

Carbohydrates

H+

Fluorescence variation of the PSII

Production of electrons

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

NADPH+ H+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

slide14

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

PAM

13C

Advantages

Advantage

  • Fast (10min)
  • Economic
  • Non invasive
  • Automatic
  • Gives access to the carbon incorporation

Disavantages

Disadvantage

  • Requires a long time of incubation (3h)
  • Costly
  • Does not give access to the carbon incorporation

High frequency measurements

Low frequency measurements

slide15

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

13C

Carbon incorporation

Calvin cycle

Calvin cycle

Carbohydrates

H+

Fluorescence variation of the PSII

Production of electrons

ATP

ADP+Pi

Factor ?

NADP+

NADPH+ H+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

slide17

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

What kind of relationship?

Logarithmic relationship

Photoregulation at high light to protect the cell from photoinhibition by damages

Alternative electron sinks

-cyclic electron flow around PSI, PSII

-Mehler reaction

-Reduction of nitrate

-Photorespiration

More electrons needed to fix 1 mole of C.

C = 0.1503 + 0.0496 * ln(ETR)

slide18

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

What kind of relationship?

Influence of physicochemical and biological parameters?

C = f(ETR) + a*v1 + b*v2 + ….

Physicochemical parameters?

Biological parameters?

Logarithmic relationship

In situ

C = 0.1503 + 0.0496 * ln(ETR)

slide19

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Influence of physicochemical and biological parameters?

C = 0.2082+0.0496 * ln(ETR) - (0.319 * DIP) + (0.000166 * PAR)

C = 0.2082+0.0496 * ln(ETR)

In situ

- (0.319 * DIP) + (0.000166 * PAR)

slide20

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Can we use high frequency ETR measurements to estimate the carbon incorporation at high resolution

YES !

Portsmouth (GB)

BUT…

However, difficulties to discriminate parameters in in situstudies

DIP and light = good integrator of other parameters?

Ouistreham (FR)

November 2009

December 2010

C = 0.2082+0.0496 * ln(ETR) - (0.319 * DIP) + (0.000166 * PAR)

slide21

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

Ouistreham Portsmouth

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

January 2010

December 2010

slide22

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

Ouistreham Portsmouth

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

January 2010

December 2010

slide23

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

Ouistreham Portsmouth

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

January 2010

December 2010

slide24

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

Ouistreham Portsmouth

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Portsmouth (GB)

Ouistreham (FR)

January 2010

December 2010

slide25

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

Variability of C.e ?

= 0.2082+0.0496 * ln(ETR) - (0.319 * DIP) + (0.000166 * PAR)

ᶲC.e = P (carbon incorporation) / ETR

Small cells = high surface/volume

Low DIP concentrations

High ᶲC.e

DIP = good integrator of the effect of small cells on ᶲC.e

slide26

Main results

The shape of the relationship between PAM measurements and carbon incorporation is logarithmic due to alternative electron sinks at high light.

Using a multi-parametric model, we can obtain a good estimation of the carbon incorporation at a high spatio-temporal scale, coupling low frequency measurements of carbon incorporation, and high frequency measurements of ETR.

The study also highlights the importance of taking into account the functional group into the estimation of C.e and particularly the dynamics of small cells.

Alternative electrons sinks

C

C

ETR

ETR

slide29

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

RUBISCO

Calvin cycle

Oxygenase

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

NADPH+ H+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

slide30

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

RUBISCO

Calvin cycle

Oxygenase

Cyclicelectron flow around PSI

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

Cyclicelectron flow around PSII

H+

NADPH+ H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

slide31

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

RUBISCO

Calvin cycle

Oxygenase

Mehler reaction

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

H+

NADPH+ H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

H+

ATPase

O2

STROMA

Fd

O2-

H2O2

H2O

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

slide32

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

RUBISCO

Calvin cycle

Oxygenase

Nitrate reductase

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

H+

NADPH+ H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

H+

ATPase

NO-3

STROMA

Fd

NO-2

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

slide33

How to estimate primary production at high frequency ?

What kind of relationship ?

Calvin cycle

RUBISCO

Photorespiration

CO2

Oxygenase

O2

Carboxylase

CO2

Carbohydrates

H+

NADPH+ H+

ATP

ADP+Pi

NADP+

H+

ATPase

STROMA

Fd

PSII

PSI

e-

e-

LUMEN

H2O

O2 + H+

ad