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Amorites. Hammurabi. Successful general Defeated Sumerians and Akkad around 1760 B.C.E Helped his people conquer Mesopotamia A famous Babylonian Monarch Created one of the first empires by uniting Mesopotamia under one ruler. Hammurabi. Improved the irrigation process of his empire

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Hammurabi
Hammurabi

  • Successful general

  • Defeated Sumerians and Akkad around 1760 B.C.E

  • Helped his people conquer Mesopotamia

  • A famous Babylonian Monarch

  • Created one of the first empires by uniting Mesopotamia under one ruler


Hammurabi1
Hammurabi

  • Improved the irrigation process of his empire

  • Strongly encouraged astronomy, mathematics, and literature


The code of hammurabi
The Code of Hammurabi

  • Was created by Hammurabi

  • First known code of laws in ancient civilizations

  • Used to keep order in the empire

  • Contained the concepts of “an eye for an eye” or “lex talionis”

  • Established rules for common issues

Code of Hammurabi


The code of hammurabi1
The Code of Hammurabi

  • Created standards for behavior

  • Created punishments

  • They were posted in the cities’ temple

  • Written in cuneiform

  • Hammurabi


The code of hammurabi2
The Code of Hammurabi

  • 282 total laws

  • Written around 1786 B.C.E

  • Carved in forty-nine columns of stone tablets called stele


The code of hammurabi3
The Code of Hammurabi

  • Addressed topics such as civil, commercial, family, and criminal laws

  • Some laws showed favoring towards higher social classes

    • “If a man strikes the cheek of a freeman who is superior in rank to himself, he shall be beaten with 60 stripes with a whip of ox-hide in the assembly”


Impact of ideas
Impact of Ideas

  • Many later documents used ideas from the Code of Hammurabi

  • When the Kassites conquered Babylon and controlled Mesopotamia they still used Hammurabi’s Code

  • Established the authority of the government for Babylon and other societies


Impact of ideas1
Impact of Ideas

  • Some historians suggest that many aspects of the Bible include borrowed ideas from Hammurabi’s Code

    • The 10 Commandments

    • Levitical Law contains the concept of an eye for an eye

    • The laws of Melchizedek (the land that the Bible said God told Abraham to live on)


Culture
Culture

  • Spoke language related to Hebrew

  • Wrote on clay tablets

    • Cuneiform writing


Culture1
Culture

  • Elaborate palaces and temple buildings

    • Art and architecture were influenced by other Mesopotamian cultures


Culture2
Culture

  • Worshiped Sumerian gods

  • Told Sumerian myths and tales

  • Created a new god they worshipped

    • Marduk

  • The Epic of Gilgamesh was created and contributed to religion


  • Social institutions
    Social Institutions

    • Split up into 2 groups: traders and workers

    • Society of farmers, free citizens, and merchants

    • Priests served gods and cared for the welfare of his subjects.


    Social institutions1
    Social Institutions

    • Monarchy

    • Became more powerful

    • Used power to collect taxes and make a strong army

    • Strong central government needed a set of laws to keep order(Hammurabi's Code)


    Social institutions2
    Social Institutions

    • Instead of city-states they created one big kingdom

    • Their most famous king was Hammurabi

    • The Code of Hammurabi set up the rules for each social class.


    Government
    Government

    • Based on Sumerian civilization

    • Relied on sun god: Marduk

    • Ruler was Hammurabi

    • Hammurabi’s Code gave empire order


    Economy
    Economy

    • Traded with Canaan and Anatolia

      • Reflected art and agriculture

      • Traded cloth for gold


    Human environment interactions
    Human Environment Interactions

    Kingdoms

    • Division into kingdoms replaced city-states of Sumerians

    • Kings chose the land people were given and which land would be dedicated to farming


    Human environment interaction
    Human Environment Interaction

    Farmland

    • Grew wheat and barely

    • Created better irrigation systems

    • Domesticating animals

    • Creating better roads and improving wheels led to population growth


    Cooperation and conflict
    Cooperation and Conflict

    • Sumerians fell and Mesopotamia went in a conflicted era

    • Amorites traveled into Mesopotamia, and recreated their civilization but with improvements


    Cooperation and conflict1
    Cooperation and Conflict

    • The fall of the Amorites was called the Dark Age

    • Kassites took over and the language of the Amorites faded into the south of Mesopotamia


    Location
    Location

    • the Amorites lived in Canaan and in the

      Eastern part of the fertile crescent

    http://www.jesuswalk.com/joshua/images/amorite-map.gif


    Social classes
    Social Classes

    • 2 forms of slaves – (Wardu)

      • Debtors working for freedom

      • Prisoners of War/ women + children sold to pay a debt

    • Slaves were occasionally sold to pay labors


    Social classes cont
    Social Classes cont.

    • 2 forms of free citizens

      • Higher (Anilu)

      • Lower (Mushkenu)

    • Military + civil services are under free citizens

    • Nobles and rulers are the final rung

    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16653/16653-h/img/23.jpg


    Geography
    Geography

    • In the Western part of Mesopotamia

      now known as Arabia

    • Hot and dry climate in the summer; cold and wet in winter

    • Fertile land, major waterways to help with trade

    • Also the Mountain range Jebel Bishiri

    • Built around the Euphrates


    Technology inventions
    Technology/ Inventions

    • Centralized government

    • A new God (Marduk)

    • Established the 1st dynasty

    • 1st written code of laws


    Cooperation and conflict2
    Cooperation and Conflict

    • Nebuchadnezzar led a revival in 1000 BCE

    • Agum I took over Babylon after the Hittite rule

    • Samsu-ditanna was the last king

    • Traded with every city-state in the Euphrates river valley


    Governmental ideas
    Governmental ideas

    • 1st set of written laws

    • Had one central city-state, Babylon

    • Divisions of kingdoms eliminated city- states

    • Development of personal ownership/ private property

    • Priests didn’t control the economy anymore


    Social institutions3
    Social Institutions

    • Religion

      • Worshipped the Moon god(Sin) + Amurru

      • Amurru is possibly where they got the name Amorites

      • Believed in an after life

      • Believed their king was a god

    • Government

      • Scribes kept track of everything

      • Hereditary Monarchy


    Social institutions cont
    Social Institutions Cont.

    • Schools (Tablet School)

      • Children began school at age 8 or 9

      • Had schools for scribes

      • Took 12 years

      • Mostly boy students

      • Senior students helped the

        teacher/expert


    Cultural development
    Cultural development

    • Bronze began to be used

    • Passed on stories orally

      ex.) “Epic of Gilgamesh”

    • Looked at monarch as a god

    • Religion was part of their everyday culture


    Individuals
    Individuals

    • Hammurabi:

      • Wrote the 1st code of laws

      • Very one gender sided

      • Created a man based society

      • Women became slaves and household objects

      • Changed laws everywhere


    Economics
    Economics

    • Was controlled by priest

    • Changed hands with Hammurabi’s rule

    • Trade thrived in this area because:

      • Large cities

      • Their geographical location (rivers)

    http://www.bible-history.com/sketches/ancient/nebuchadnezzar-inscription.jpg


    Impact of ideas2
    Impact of Ideas

    • Freed certain people from taxes

    • Switched from independent city-states to kingdoms made up of city-states

    • Changes in the economic system

      • control shifted from religious leaders to king/government


    Fun facts
    Fun Facts!

    • Famous for Hammurabi’s Code

    • Hittites conquered the Amorites then left, then the Kassites came and occupied the territory

    • First to inhabit Canaan + Babylonia area

    • Established first Babylonian dynasty

    • Jebel Bishiri – Syria named after the Amorites


    Introduction
    Introduction

    • Amorites were also known as the Old Babylonians who were mountainous people and warriors

    • The Amorites ruled the empire from 1900-1600 B.C.E known as the Old Babylonian Period

    • They were a group of Semites that gained control of Mesopotamia after the fall of the last Sumerian dynasty


    Location1
    Location

    • In the fertile crescent

    • Occupied the area west of the Euphrates River

    • Babylon was the capitol of the Amorite Empire

    • The area the Amorites occupied included the cities:

    • Mari

    • Rapiqum

    • Sippar

    • Babylon

    • Eshunna

    • Malgium

    • Nippur

    • Isir

    • Uruk

    • Larsa

    • Lagash

    • Ur

    • Eridu


    Location cont
    Location cont.

    • Occupied modern-day Syria

    • Northern area was composed of hills and plains

    • It was fertile because of rivers flowing down from the mountains

    • Southern area had marshy areas and desolate plains


    Language
    Language

    • Amorites used the Akkadian language as their spoken language

    • Used cuneiform for many of their documents

    • Used the Sumerian language as their religious language


    Religion
    Religion

    • Polytheistic

    • They adopted the Sumerian religion

    • Main god was Marduk which is the only god that they imported

    • Did not care about life after death

    • Focused mainly on life itself


    Important individuals
    Important Individuals

    • Hammurabi: the sixth ruler of Babylonia, who created the first set of written laws

    • Gilgamesh: legendary king discovers the secret of floods and defies the gods

    • Samsu-Ditana: last king of the

      First Babylonian Dynasty


    Social classes1
    Social Classes

    • Social Pyramid:

      • Noblemen

      • Commoners

      • Women

      • Slaves

    • New kings came to rule:

      • Many people were freed

      • New societies


    Writing
    Writing

    • Hammurabi’s Code

    • The famous Venus Tablets of Ammis

      aduqa

    • The Epic of Gilgamesh

      • Gilgamesh searched for immortality

      • Learned from the only man who survived a great flood created by the gods

      • Gilgamesh also conquered the demon, Huwawa, who lived in the cedar forest

      • Gilgamesh wanted Cedar Wood and encountered the Huwawa and killed it


    Technology
    Technology

    • Adopted many of the Sumerians’ technological advancements:

      • Wheel

      • Boat/Ships

      • Metallurgy

      • Irrigation Systems


    Mathematics
    Mathematics

    • Helped with trade and records

    • Developed multiplication and exponents

    • Tablets recovered including signs of:

      • Fractions

      • Algebra

      • Quadratic Equations

      • Cubic Equations

      • Pythagorean Theorem


    Arts architecture
    Arts/Architecture

    • Had an abundance of mudbrick

    • Built temples supported by buttresses

    • Use of brick led to the early development of pilaster and column

    • Walls were brilliantly colored and plated with zinc or gold

    • Assyrians adopted later on


    Wars

    • Always prepared for wars

    • Wars rarely occurred

    • War against Gibeon:

      • 5 kings of Amorite marched together to attack Gibeon

      • Felt threatened by Gibeon’s wealth, power, and military status

      • They attacked Gibeon

      • Gibeon survived b/c of King Joshua’s cunning plots and tactics


    Government1
    Government

    • Established a bureaucracy: a system of government

    • Were first to have a set of laws which was Hammurabi’s Code

    • Hammurabi’s Code was written around 1792-1750 B.C.E.


    Effect on mesopotamia
    Effect on Mesopotamia

    • Changed city-states into kingdoms

    • Men, cattle, and land ceased to belong to the gods or the temples and kings

    • Brought lasting repercussions in its political, social and economic structure


    Bibliography
    Bibliography

    www.angelfire.com/va3/violingirl/amorites.html

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorite

    http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/AMORITES.HTMhttp://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch01.htm

    http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/world_cultures/middle_east/amorites.aspx

    http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/AMORITES.HTM

    http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b1hammurabi.htm

    http://www.lawbuzz.com/ourlaws/hammurabi/religion.htm

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammurabi


    Sources
    Sources

    “Amorites.” Amorite. Wikipedia. November 5, 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorites>

    “Geography.” Geography. The British Museum. November 4, 2008 <http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/geography/home_set.html>

    “Mathematics.” Babylonia. Wikipedia. November 13, 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonians#Mathematics>

    “Old Babylonian Period.” Babylonia. Wikipedia. November 4, 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonians#Old_Babylonia

    n_period>

    “Technology.” Babylonia. Wikipedia. November 8, 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonians#Technology>

    The Amorites. November 11, 2008 <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/AMORITES.HTM>


    Bibliography1
    Bibliography

    "Amorites." High Beam Encylopedia. 2008. 10 Nov. 2008 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1e1-amorites.html. "Amorites." Phoencia.org. 2008. PhoenciaEnclylopedia. 9 Nov. 2008 http://phoenicia.org/amorites.html. "The Amorites, Phoenicians, and Hebrews." 10 Nov. 2008 http://www.egyptorigins.org/amorites.htm. "The Amorites." World History Center. History World International. 10 Nov. 2008 http://history-world.org/amorites.htm. "Ancient Babylonia Geography." Bible History. 10 Nov. 2008 http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/babyloniageography.htm. "Ancient Hodgepodge." Fun Trivia. 10 Nov. 2008 http://www.funtrivia.com/en/subtopics/ancient-hodgepodge-149254.html. Hooker, Richard. "Mesopotamia." 1996. World Civilizations. 10 Nov. 2008.