Cells. Bacterial cell – genetic information not contained within a nucleus. Diffusion is the net movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration down the concentration gradient until an equilibrium is reached. Cell . Tissue. Organ. Organ system.
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Diffusion is the net movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration down the concentration gradient until an equilibrium is reached
■ muscular tissue, to churn the contents
■ glandular tissue, to produce digestive juices
■ epithelial tissue, to cover the outside and the inside of the stomach.
Taken in through holes in the leaves as a gas in air
Taken in through the roots from soil
Made by photosynthesis and stored as starch in leaves, roots, stems, etc.
waste product exhaled
With light and
We know that plants make their own food from sunlight. They are the producers in the food chain. This is done in the green parts of the plant, e.g. upper surface of the leaves.
Paraffin lamps have traditionally been used in greenhouses. Their use increases the rate of photosynthesis because as well as the light generated from the lamps, the burning paraffin produces heat and carbon dioxide too
The use of artificial light allows photosynthesis to continue beyond daylight hours. Bright lights also provide a higher-than-normal light intensity.
The use of artificial heating allows photosynthesis to continue at an increased rate.
Used in respiration
To produce fats and oils for storage
To produce cellulose for cell walls
To produce proteins
To produce proteins, plants also use nitrate ions that are absorbed from the soil.
Enzymes are protein molecules, and so are made up of long chains of amino acids. Most enzymes contain between 100 and 1,000 amino acids.
These long chains are folded to produce a unique 3D shape which enables other molecules to fit into the protein.
The shape of an enzyme is vital for the enzyme’s function. High temperatures change the shape. Different enzymes work best at different pH values.
If the temperature and pH changes sufficiently beyond an enzyme’s optimum, the shape of the enzyme irreversibly changes.
This affects the shape of the active site and means that the enzyme will no longer work.
When this happens the enzyme is denatured.
A change in the pH changes the shape of the protein molecule, the enzyme loses its active site and so can no longer act as a catalyst.
The digestive enzymes are produced by specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut. The enzymes then pass out of the cells into the gut where they come into contact with food molecules.
They catalyse the breakdown of large INSOLUBLE molecules into smaller SOLUBLE molecules.
The stomach produces hydrochloric acid to create the optimum conditions for the protease enzymes in the stomach
Bile neutralises the acid that was added to food in the stomach. This provides alkaline conditions in which enzymes in the small intestine work most effectively.
More effective at low temperatures than other washing powders
Isomerase – converts glucose into fructose
In industry, enzymes are used to bring about reactions at normal temperatures and pressures that would otherwise require expensive, energy-demanding equipment.
waste product exhaled
waste product exhaled
from the digestive system
from the breathing system
AEROBIC Respirationis the process that the body uses to release energy from digested food (glucose):
Happens in all cells all the time in plants & animals inside mitochondria
The folded layers produce a large surface area for the chemical reactions
The large surface area means more enzymes can attach to the substrates to catalyse the reactions
available during exercise
what type of respiration
Anaerobic respiration is the incomplete breakdown of glucose and produces lactic acid
In body cells the chromosomes are normally found in pairs. Body cells divide by mitosis. The chromosomes contain the genetic information
Most types of animal cells differentiate at an early stage whereas many plant cells retain the ability to differentiate throughout life.
Sexual reproduction gives rise to variation because, when gametes fuse, one of each pair of alleles comes from each parent
Chromosomes are made of DNA
Each gene codes for a particular combination of amino acids which make a specific protein
Each person (apart from identical twins) has unique DNA. This can be used to identify
individuals in a process known as DNA fingerprinting