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What’s the difference?. “There is a quiz tomorrow.” Mr. Ellis said that there is a quiz tomorrow. 1. Which of these is a direct / indirect statement? 2. How would you characterize an Indirect Statement?. When is a Statement Indirect?.

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What s the difference
What’s the difference?

  • “There is a quiz tomorrow.”

  • Mr. Ellis said that there is a quiz tomorrow.

    1. Which of these is a direct / indirect statement?

    2. How would you characterize an Indirect Statement?


When is a statement indirect
When is a Statement Indirect?

Indirect Statement occurs when the speaker or writer of a sentence reports what they or another person said, saw, thought, or perceived in any way--without directly quoting that person said, saw, thought, or perceived.


Examples in english
Examples in English:

  • I heard that they were not here.

  • Caesar said that the die had been cast.

  • The Romans perceived that the enemies were at the gate.

  • They say that the are hungry.

  • Did you say that you will be prepared for the test?

  • I feel that I’m hungry.


How to do this in latin
How to do this in Latin:

The verb of perception or saying conjugates just like any verb.

The ‘subject’ or ‘doer’ of the action indirectly being reported goes into the ACCUSATIVE case.

The ‘verb’ or action being indirectly reported becomes an INFINITIVE.



The accusative infinitive construction
The Accusative-Infinitive Construction: indicative mood?

Ex 1: Marcus said that his father was working.

Marcus dixit patrem laborare.

Note that patrem (the ‘subject of the indirect statement) is in the Accusative case where as ‘working’ becomes an infinitive because it is the reported action. “Dixit” declines because it is the action of the sentence (or the main verb)


Verbs of mind or mouth m m
Verbs of Mind or Mouth (M & M) indicative mood?

  • audio

  • sentio

  • video

  • nosco

  • cognosco

  • dico

  • scio

  • puto

  • arbitror

  • intellego

  • nuntio

12. spero

13. nego

14. minor

15. polliceor

16. existimo

17. arbitror

18. oro

19. can(t)o

20. iuro

21. video (that)


How to translate the accusative infinitive in indirect discourse
How to translate the Accusative/Infinitive in Indirect Discourse

  • Trojanos pervenire audivit.

    S/he heard that the Trojans were arriving.

    ‘Trojanos’ is the Accusative SUBJECT of an indirect statement. You should almost always try to get a ‘THAT’ into your translation of an indirect statement.


Infinitives like participles express relative time
Infinitives (like participles) Express Relative Time Discourse

Perfect Infinitives happened before the main verb.

Present Infinitives happen at the same time as the main verb.

Future Infinitives happen subsequent the main verb.



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