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Personal protective equipment. FO3 Adrian D Quilang.

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personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment

FO3 Adrian D Quilang

introduction

Firefighters require the BEST personal protective equipment available because of the hostile environment in which they perform their duties. Providing and using quality protective equipment will not necessarily guarantee firefighter safety but injuries can be reduced and prevented if protective ensembles and breathing apparatus are properly maintained and used properly.

introduction
full protective equipment for structural firefighting

HEAD PROTECTION

  • EYE PROTECTION
  • HEARING PROTECTION
  • PROTECTIVE HOODS
  • PROTECTIVE COAT AND TROUSER
  • FEET PROTECTION
  • HAND PROTECTION
  • PERSONAL ALERT SAFETY SYSTEM
  • SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Full Protective Equipment for Structural Firefighting
head protection

Prevents the head from impact and puncture injuries as well as from scalding water. This is the first concern of firefighters. Also referred to as helmet.

Head protection

Benefits of the Head Protection

  • Protect from head from impact
  • Provide protection from heat and cold
  • Provides face shields for secondary of the eyes and face when SCBA is not required
head protection1

Types of Head Protection

  • Firefighter Helmets
  • Rescue Helmets
Head protection
head protection2

Parts of a Helmet

  • Ear Covers
  • Chin Straps
  • Face Shield
  • Head Strap Adjuster
  • Brim (Wide)
Head protection
eye protection

Protects the wearer’s eyes from flying solid particles or liquids.

Eye protection
  • Types of Eye Protection
  • Helmet Face Shield
  • Safety Goggles
  • SCBA Mask Facepiece
  • Safety Glasses
hearing protection

Limits noise-induced damage to the firefighter’s ears when loud noise situations cannot be avoided

Hearing protection
  • Types of Hearing Protection
  • Intercom/Ear protection systems
  • Earmuffs / Ear Plugs
protective hoods

Provides protection of the firefighter’s neck, ears and face not covered by helmet or coat from exposure to extreme heat

Protective Hoods
protective coats and trousers

Used to protect the upper and lower extremities (trunks and limbs) against cuts, abrasions, and burn injuries resulting from radiant heat and provides limited protection against corrosive liquids

Protective Coats and Trousers
protective coats and trousers1

There are no difference to both components for protection except that the protective coats are for upper extremities and protective trousers are for lower extremities.

Protective Coats and Trousers
  • Components of a Protective Coat and Trousers
  • Outer Shell
  • Moisture Barrier
  • Thermal Barrier
protective coats and trousers2

Parts of Protective Coat

  • Collar
  • Storm Flaps
  • Wristlets
  • Pockets
  • Reinforced Elbow Pads
  • Straps, Zippers or Hooks
  • Reflective Trims
Protective Coats and Trousers
protective coats and trousers3

Parts of a Protective Trouser

  • Reinforced Knee Pads
  • Heavy Duty Suspenders
  • Reflective Trims
  • Pockets
Protective Coats and Trousers
feet protection

Protect the feet from burn injuries and puncture wounds. Also called Safety Shoes and Boots

Feet Protection
  • Types of Feet Protection
  • Fire Boots
  • Safety Shoes
hand protection

Protects the hands from cuts, abrasions, wounds, and burn injuries. Must have enough dexterity (handiness) for proper fit to the wearer.

Hand Protection
  • Kinds of Hand Protection
  • Firefighter Gloves
  • (with wristlets or Gauntlets)
  • Extrication Gloves
  • Knitted Gloves
  • Rescue Gloves
personal alert safety system

Provides life-safety protection by emitting a loud shriek if the firefighter should collapse or remain motionless for approximately 30 seconds. Newer types of PASS are attached to the SCBA Harness Assembly.

This is also called Personal Alert Device (PAD)

Personal Alert Safety System
self contained breathing apparatus

Why Respiratory Protection is Important?

Health Hazards in the workplace are a major concern for both employers and employees. It is important, though, to remember that hazardous materials only present a health hazard when they come into contact with your body.

SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS

Hazardous materials can enter your body in three ways:

  • Ingestion
  • Skin Absorption
  • Inhalation
self contained breathing apparatus1

Inhalation

Of the three ways that hazardous materials can enter your body, inhalation is the most common route of exposure for most materials which are health hazards. This includes breathing in dust, fumes, oil mist, and vapors from solvents and various gases.

SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS

Inhaling hazardous materials damages the delicate structure of your lungs. Lungs that have been damaged are more susceptible to respiratory diseases. These diseases often cannot be cured, and eventually lead to death. In short, respiratory protection is serious business.

scba respiratory hazards
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS

Respiratory Hazards

The lungs and respiratory tract are more vulnerable to injury than any other body areas, and the gases encountered in fires are, for the most part, dangerous in one way or another. It is a general rule that we should not enter any potential toxic atmosphere or any hazardous condition unless equipped with a protective breathing apparatus.

  • Four common hazardous atmospheres associated with or other related emergencies
  • Oxygen Deficiency
  • Elevated Temperatures
  • Smoke
  • Toxic Atmospheres
scba respiratory hazards1
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS

Oxygen Deficiency

Occurs when the combustion process consumes oxygen while producing toxic gases that either physically displace oxygen or dilutes its concentration. When below 18 percent, the human body responds by increasing its respiratory rate. Oxygen deficiency occurs in below-grade locations, chemical storage tanks, grain bins, silos and other confined spaces. Another is total-flooding carbon dioxide extinguishing system after discharge.

scba respiratory hazards3
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS

Smoke

Is the suspension of small particles of carbon, tar, and dust floating in the combination of heated gases. Some of the suspended particles are irritating, but others may be lethal. The darker the smoke, the higher carbon monoxide level.

scba respiratory hazards4
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
  • Toxic Atmospheres
  • Associated with Fires
  • Not Associated with Fires
scba respiratory hazards5
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
  • Toxic Atmospheres Associated with Fires
  • Occurs during the combustion process, exposure to combination of irritants and toxicants whose toxicity cannot be predicted accurately
  • The particular toxic gases given off at a fire vary according to four factors:
  • Nature of the Combustible
  • Rate of Heating
  • Temperature of the evolved gases
  • Oxygen concentration in the air
scba respiratory hazards6
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS

Toxic Atmospheres Not Associated with Fires

Are most likely can be found at highly industrialized processes that uses extremely dangerous chemicals. This does not necessarily mean only at those areas but another from leakage upon / during transportation of highly dangerous/hazardous chemicals

scba respiratory hazards7
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS

Elevated Temperatures

Are caused by exposure to heated air can damage the respiratory tract, and if air is moist, the damage can be much worse. Excessive heat taken quickly into the lungs can cause decrease in blood pressure and circulatory system failure. Inhaling heated gases can cause pulmonary edema (accumulation of fluids in the lungs and associated swelling) can cause death by asphyxiation

self contained breathing apparatus2

Protective breathing apparatus is extremely crucial to the well-being of a firefighter. Failure to use this equipment could lead to failed rescue attempts, firefighter injuries, or worst – fatalities.

A well trained firefighter should be knowledgeable of respiratory hazards, the requirements for wearing protective breathing apparatus, the procedures for donning or doffing the apparatus, and the proper care and maintenance of the equipment. The basic misconception of the SCBA is that its content is not oxygen but compressed air (open-circuit) or liquid oxygen (closed-circuit)

SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus3

SCBA protects the face and lungs from toxic smoke and gases, and other products of combustion

SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
  • Types of Breathing Apparatus
  • Open-Circuit – most frequently used SCBA in the fire service. This uses compressed air. The exhaled SCBA air is vented to the outside atmosphere.
  • Closed-Circuit - mostly used in long operations and hazardous materials incidents. It can last for four (4) long hours before replacement and weighs less than the open-circuit because of the smaller cylinder and uses pure liquid oxygen. It is also called Rebreather Apparatus.
self contained breathing apparatus4

Basic Components of the SCBA

  • Backpack and Harness Assembly – holds the air cylinder on the firefighter’s back and provides stability
  • Air Cylinder Assembly – Includes cylinder, valve, and pressure gauge
  • Regulator Assembly – includes high pressure hose and low pressure hose
  • Face Piece Assembly – includes face piece lens, exhalation valve, low-pressure hose, face piece straps
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus5

General Parts of the SCBA

  • Backpack and Harness
  • Remote Pressure Gauge
  • Cylinder Pressure Gauge
  • High Pressure Hose
  • Face Mask
  • Bypass Valve
  • First Stage Regulator
  • Second Stage Regulator
  • Low Pressure Hose
  • Exhalation Valve
  • Air Cylinder
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus6

Protective Breathing Apparatus Limitations

In order to operate effectively, the firefighter must be aware of the three (3) limitations of SCBA, namely:

  • Limitations of Wearer
  • Limitations of Equipment
  • Limitations of Air Supply
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus7

Limitations of Wearer

Several factors affect the firefighter’s ability to use SCBA effectively. These factors include physical, medical and mental limitations.

Physical

  • Physical condition – the wearer must be in sound physical condition in order to maximize the work that can be performed and to stretch the air supply as far as possible.
  • Agility – Wearing a protective breathing apparatus restricts the wearer’s movements and its affects his balance. Good agility will help overcome these obstacles.
  • Facial Features – the shape and contour of the face affects the wearer’s ability to get a good facepiece-to-face seal.
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus8

Medical

  • Neurological Functioning – good motor coordination is necessary for operating in protective breathing equipment. The wearer must be of a sound mind to handle emergency situations that may arise.
  • Muscular/Skeletal Condition – must have physical strength and size to wear the size required to perform the mandated tasks.
  • Cardiovascular Conditioning – poor cardiovascular conditioning can result to heart attacks, strokes or other related problems during strenuous activity.
  • Respiratory Functioning – proper respiratory functioning can and will maximize the wearer’s operation time in a self-contained breathing apparatus.
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus9

Limitations of Equipment

  • Limited visibility – due to the facepiece, reduces peripheral vision and facepiece fogging can reduce overall vision.
  • Decreased ability to communicate – facepiece hinders voice communication
  • Increased Weight – adds 25 to 35 pounds of the weight of the firefighter, depending on the model
  • Decreased Mobility – due to the increased weight factor of the SCBA and the splinting effect of the harness straps, reduces firefighter’s mobility.
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus10

Mental

  • Adequate training in equipment use – the wearer must be knowledgeable in every aspect of the breathing apparatus use.
  • Self-confidence – the firefighter’s belief in his ability will have an extremely positive overall effect on the actions performed.
  • Emotional Stability – the ability to maintain control in an excited or high stress environment will reduce the chances of a serious mistake being made.
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus11

Limitations of Air Supply

  • Physical Condition of User – firefighter’s poor physical condition generally expends air supply faster
  • Degree of Physical Exertion – the higher the physical exertion, the faster the air supply expended
  • Emotional Stability of the User – the higher the wearer become excited or stressed, uses air supply faster than the calm firefighter.
  • Condition of Apparatus – minor leaks and poor adjustment of regulators results in excessive air loss
  • Cylinder pressure before use – if the cylinder is not filled to capacity, the amount of working time is reduced proportionately
  • Training and user experience – properly trained and highly experienced personnel are able to draw the maximum air supply from a cylinder.
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus12

Donning of SCBA – refers to the proper wearing of the SCBA

  • Donning from a storage case
    • Over-the-Head Method
    • Backpack Method
  • Donning from a Seat Mount
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
self contained breathing apparatus13

Doffing of SCBA – refers to the proper removal of the SCBA

Doffing Procedures:

  • Make sure that you are out of the contaminated area and SCBA is no longer required.
  • Discontinue the flow of air from the regulator to the facepiece
  • Disconnect low pressure hose from the regulator from the facepiece, depending upon type of SCBA
  • Remove the facepiece
  • Remove the backpack assembly while protecting the regulator
  • Close cylinder valve
  • Relieve pressure from the regulator
  • Extend all straps
  • Refill and replace the SCBA
  • Clean and disinfect the facepiece
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
care and maintenance of ppe

Proper Care and Maintenance of Personal Protective Equipment

  • Upon return to the station, check all worn and used PPE for any damages or contamination
  • Clean/Wash all those used in the operations before storing
  • If contaminated and cannot be disinfected, properly dispose the equipment
  • Follow the necessary procedures for cleaning and maintaining equipments based on the manufacturer’s instructions.
CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF PPE
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