Project management
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Project management

  • This presentation will probably involve audience discussion, which will create action items. Use PowerPoint to keep track of these action items during your presentation

  • In Slide Show, click on the right mouse button

  • Select “Meeting Minder”

  • Select the “Action Items” tab

  • Type in action items as they come up

  • Click OK to dismiss this box

  • This will automatically create an Action Item slide at the end of your presentation with your points entered.

Project Management

Martha Grabowski

LeMoyne College


Project

Project

  • Sequence of unique, complex and interconnected activities with a goal or purpose that must be completed by a specified time, within budget, and according to specifications.

  • Projects involve

    • complex activities

    • interconnected, sequential events

    • defined milestones, deliverables, expectations

    • deliverables that must meet specification(s)

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management1

Project Management

  • Process of scoping, planning, staffing, organizing, directing and controlling the development of an acceptable system at acceptable cost (minimum?) within a specified time frame.

  • Tiger teams

    • temporary, flexible, interdepartmental teams

    • responsibility and authority for firefighting

    • accountable for organizational success

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Process management

Process Management

  • Ongoing activity that documents, manages the use of, and improves an organization’s chosen methodology for systems development.

  • Process management

    • concerned with all projects

    • activities, deliverables, and quality standards

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Successful projects

Successful Projects

  • System is acceptable to the customer.

  • System is delivered on time.

  • System is delivered within budget.

  • System development process had minimal impact on ongoing business operations!

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Why do projects fail

Why Do Projects Fail?

  • Failure to establish upper management commitment to project.

    • commitments change?

  • Lack of organizational commitment to system development process

  • Taking shortcuts through or around the system development process.

    • Project team behind schedule, wants to catch up

    • Project is over budget and team wants to make up $$

    • Team is not trained or skilled in methodology and requiremts

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Why do projects fail1

Why Do Projects Fail?

  • Poor expectations management

    • Project expectations change?

    • Scope creep--unexpected growth of user expectations and business requirements as the project progresses. Adversely impacts schedule and budget

    • Feature creep--uncontrolled addition of technical features to a system under development without regard to schedule and budget.

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Why do projects fail2

Why Do Projects Fail?

  • Premature commitment to a fixed budget and schedule.

    • Firm fixed cost

    • Cost plus fixed fee

    • Creeping commitment?

  • Poor estimating techniques

  • Overoptimism

    • Task dependencies influence completion

    • Lost time in time-critical activities compounds

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Why do projects fail3

Why Do Projects Fail?

  • Mythical man month (Brooks, 1975)

    • Work hours estimates with unreasonable assumptions

    • As project gets further behind, more people assigned to the team

    • Addition of more people adds communication problems, etc.

  • Inadequate people management skills

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Why do projects fail4

Why Do Projects Fail?

  • Failure to adapt to business change

    • Overtaken by events (OBE)

    • Management reorganization or business needs change

    • Project’s importance changes over time

    • Project should be reassessed for viability, importance to the business

  • Insufficient resources

  • Failure to manage to the plan

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management competencies

Project Management Competencies

  • Business acumen

  • Problem-solving skills

  • Leadership and influence skills

  • People management skills

  • Self-management, self-direction

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management activities

Project Management Activities

  • Scoping

  • Planning

  • Estimating

  • Scheduling

  • Organizing

  • Directing

  • Controlling

  • Closing

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management tools

Project Management Tools

  • PERT charts--graphical network model that depicts a project’s tasks and the relationships between those tasks.

Task

Task

Intertask

Dependency

Scheduled

Start

Scheduled

Finish

Scheduled

Start

Scheduled

Finish

Actual

Start

Actual

Finish

Actual

Start

Actual

Finish

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management tools1

Project Management Tools

  • Statement of work--narrative description of work to be performed as part of a project. Also called project definition.

Task

Task

Intertask

Dependency

Scheduled

Start

Scheduled

Finish

Scheduled

Start

Scheduled

Finish

Actual

Start

Actual

Finish

Actual

Start

Actual

Finish

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management tools2

Project Management Tools

  • Gantt charts--horizontal bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar. Each bar is a task. Tasks are listed vertically in a column.

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management tools3

Project Management Tools

  • Statement of work--narrative description of work to be performed as part of a project. Also called project definition.

  • 1. Purpose

  • 2. Background

    • Problem Opportunity or Directive Statement

    • History, leading to project request

    • Project goal and objectives

    • Product description

  • 3. Scope

    • Stakeholders

    • Data

    • Processes

    • Locations

  • 4. Project Approach

    • Route

    • Deliverables

  • 5. Managerial Approach

    • Team building considerations

    • Manager and experience

    • Training requirements

    • Meeting schedules

    • Reporting methods and frequency

    • Conflict management

    • Scope management

  • 6. Constraints

    • Start Date

    • Deadlines

    • Budget

    • Technology

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management tools continued

Project Management Tools, continued

  • Statement of work--narrative description of work to be performed as part of a project. Also called project definition.

  • 7. Ballpark Estimates

    • Schedule

    • Budget

  • 8. Conditions of Satisfaction

    • Success criteria

    • Assumptions

    • Risk

  • 9. Appendices

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management tools4

Project Management Tools

  • Work breakdown structure--hierarchical decomposition of a project into phases, activities and tasks.

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management life cycle

Project Management Life Cycle

  • 1. Negotiate scope

  • 2. Identify tasks

  • 3. Estimate Task Durations

  • 4. Specify Intertask Dependencies

  • 5. Assign Resources

  • 6. Direct the Team Effort

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


Project management life cycle1

Project Management Life Cycle

  • 7. Monitor and control progress

  • 8. Assess project results and experiences

  • 9. Document lessons learned

  • 10. Institutionalize process improvements

Whitten, Bentley & Dittman 2001

Chapter 4


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