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Nutrition . Chapter 49-1 and Chapter 3. Unit 2 Lecture 4. Topic: Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Nutrition Covers: Chapter 3, pages 52 – 54 Chapter 49, page 977. All compounds can be classified in two broad 
categories: ORGANIC and INORGANIC compounds . Organic C ompounds

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nutrition

Nutrition

Chapter 49-1 and

Chapter 3

unit 2 lecture 4
Unit 2Lecture 4
  • Topic:
    • Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Nutrition
  • Covers:
    • Chapter 3, pages 52 – 54
    • Chapter 49, page 977
slide3

All compounds can be classified in two broad 
categories: ORGANIC and INORGANIC compounds.

  • Organic Compounds
    • Molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • The chemistry of carbon is considered to be “The chemistry of life”.
    • In organic compounds, carbon atom is usually bonded to another carbon, hydrogen or oxygen
    • Carbon is the “backbone” of organic compounds
slide4

Carbon atoms can form 4 covalent bonds in all directions

    • Can form many different shaped molecules – straight chain, branched chain, rings, etc
    • NOTE: Bond represented by a line connectingCarbon to anotherelement
slide5

LARGE CARBON MOLECULES

    • MONOMER- a single organic molecule
      • Example: Glucose (blood sugar)
    • POLYMER- two or more monomers together
      • Example: Sucrose
    • MACROMOLECULE- large organic molecule, made up of many polymers
      • Examples: Glycogen, Starch
six basic food ingredients
Six Basic Food Ingredients
  • All of the foods in the would contain at least one of six basic ingredients, also known as nutrients:
    • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
  • Four of these nutrients are organic compounds
    • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins
  • Two of these nutrients are inorganic compounds
    • Minerals, water
    • These do not contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
unit 4 lecture 5
Unit 4Lecture 5
  • Topics:
    • Carbohydrates and Lipids (Fats)
  • Covers:
    • Chapter 3, page 55 – 56 and 58 – 59
    • Chapter 49, page 977 – 979
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  • Function: Gives the body a quick energy source
    • Easy for the body to break down carbs and convert into ATP
  • MONOSACCHARIDE
    • MONOMERof carbohydrate, aka Simple Sugar
    • EXAMPLES:
      • Glucose(blood sugar)
      • Fructose(found in fruits, sweetest)
      • Galactose(found in milk)
slide11

DISACCHARIDE

    • 2 Monosaccharides combine to form a DISACCHARIDE, aka Double Sugar
    • EXAMPLE:
      • Sucrose(table sugar) = Fructose + Glucose
      • Maltose(malt sugar) = Glucose + Glucose
      • Lactose(milk sugar) = Glucose + Galactose
slide12

POLYSACCHARIDE

    • Many Monosaccharides combine to form a POLYSACCHARIDE
    • EXAMPLES:
      • Glycogen- many molecules of glucose
        • How animals store glucose, good source of energy
        • Stored in our liver and muscles
      • Starch- many molecules of glucose
        • How plants store glucose
      • Cellulose- a form of starch, makes up the rigid cell wall
        • We cannot digest cellulose, but it does stimulate smooth muscle contractions within the digestive system
lipids
Lipids
  • Lipids
    • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
    • Large molecules, long carbon “tail”
    • Function:
      • Used to build cell membranes, protect organs and provide insulation
      • Gives the body an energy storage
        • Lipids don\'t dissolve in water (NONPOLAR)
        • Carbs that aren\'t converted into ATP will be stored as lipids
slide14

Lipids are necessary to all living organisms

  • Types of Lipids
    • 1. Saturated Fats
      • Can increase levels of bad cholesterol and blood cholesterol (bad) and decreases levels of good cholesterol
      • Saturated fatty acids are usually solid at room temp
      • EXAMPLES: Butter, Animal fat, Lard, Shortening
slide15

Types of Lipids

    • 2. Unsaturated Fats
      • Can decrease levels of bad cholesterol and blood cholesterol
      • Can increase levels of good cholesterol
      • Unsaturated fatty acids are usually liquid at room temp.
      • EXAMPLES:Olive oil, Plant seeds and fruits
slide16

Some Types of Lipids:

    • 3. Phospholipid
      • Make up the cell membrane
    • 4.Wax
      • Forms a waterproof, protective coating
      • Examples: ear wax, bees\' wax, surface of plants
unit 4 lecture 6
Unit 4Lecture 6
  • Topics:
    • Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
  • Covers:
    • Chapter 3, pages 56 – 57
    • Chapter 49, pages 977 – 982
proteins
Proteins
  • Proteins
    • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen
    • Functions/Types of Proteins:
      • Major source of structural material in the body
      • Make up skin and muscles of animals
      • Help body to grow and repair damaged tissue
      • Some types of proteins: hormones, insulin, antibodies, enzymes, hair, skin pigment
proteins1
Proteins
  • Proteins
    • Proteins are macromolecules
      • Made up of monomers known as AMINO ACIDS
      • 20 different kinds of amino acids
        • Every amino acid has the same basic structure EXCEPT for one part, known as the "R group”
        • Each amino acid has a different R group
      • Our body can\'t produce all 20 amino acids, although we need all 20 to function
      • We get these 8 (or 10 for children) essential amino acids from our diet
slide22

ENZYMES

    • ENZYMESare proteins with a special job
      • Name of enzyme usually ends in –ase (Ex: Sucrase)
    • CATALYST- speed up the reactions in the body by lowering the activation energy
    • Enzyme reactions depend on the physical fit between the enzyme and the substrate
slide23

ENZYMES

    • Enzyme and substrate have a specific form to allow them to fit together (like a lock and key)
    • After the reaction is complete, the enzyme’s original shape returns
      • This allows enzymes to be used numerous times
slide24

Proteins

    • Proteins are very large molecules made up of a long chain of amino acids
      • Order and type of amino acids is different for each type of protein
        • This gives each type of protein a different shape
      • If the protein changes its form, it changes the function
    • EXAMPLES:
      • Egg whites,  Enzymes
      • The form of proteins can change because of temperature,  amino acid sequence, incorrect folding
slide25

VITAMINS

    • Organic compound, nutrient, necessary for all living organisms
    • Function: work as coenzymes
      • Def: molecule that helps enzymes to be more efficient
    • Can be used many times, just like enzymes
      • This is why we only need a small amount of daily vitamins
    • Our body can\'t make most vitamins
    • Need to get vitamins from another source (food, supplements)
    • Vitamins can be water or fat soluble
    • If intake too many vitamins:
      • Water soluble - released in urine
      • Fat soluble - build up in body, can be fatal
slide26

MINERALS

    • Inorganic compound, nutrient, necessary for all living organisms
    • Function: Provide necessary material needed for cells to function properly
    • Our body can\'t make minerals
    • Need to get minerals from another source (food, supplements)
slide27

WATER

    • Inorganic molecule, nutrient, necessary to maintain life
    • Over half of your body weight is from water!
    • Function:
      • Regulate body temperature
      • Dissolves substances (salts, sugars, wastes)
      • Transportation of substances through cells and whole body
    • Need to intake as much water (or more) than we lose during the day
      • If losing too much water, cells won’t be able to function
        • Known as Dehydration
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