Energy and human labor
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Energy and Human Labor. References. Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1990) Assessment of the energetics of human labor. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 32

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Energy and Human Labor

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Energy and human labor

Energy and Human Labor


References

References

  • Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1990) Assessment of the energetics of human labor. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 32

  • Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1992) Energy Efficiency and Nutrition in Societies based on human labor. Energy of Food and Nutrition. 28 pp. 11-32.

  • Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1991) Energy Efficiency: assessing the interaction between humans and their environment. Ecological Economics 4, pp 117-144.

  • Ramos-Martin, Jesus; et al.() Why Catalonia will see its energy metabolism increas in the near future: An application of MuSIASEM

  • Giampietro, Mario; Mayumi, Kozo (2000) Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism: Introducing the Approach. Population and Environment 22(2), pp. 109-153.


Approach

Approach

  • How to assess energetics of human labor?

    • concept energy efficiency in the assess. of human labor

  • Different Hierarchical levels

    • Individual levels (energy requirments)

    • Societal level

    • Ecological level

  • Different measurements

    • Monetary

    • Energetic


Approach1

Approach

  • Societal energy budget

    • Characteristics of different societies

    • Assessing technological change and „measuring improvement“

      • Optimizing Energy Efficiency (trade-offs, interdependences)

    • Linking demographic, nutritional factors, etc.

    • integerate questions on ecological and individual level


Systems energy analysis

Systems Energy Analysis

  • Self-organizing systems able to maintain a certain level of complexity by continuous dissipation of energy

    • „Dissipative structure theory“ (Prigogine)

  • Humans invest applied power to alter ecosystems

    • direct: energy to generate applied power

    • Maintenance of the structures needed to produce

  • Flow of energy harvested (Energy input) is the return on human investment


  • Definitions

    Definitions

    • Human Labor provides

      • Flow of applied power

      • Flow of Information

    • Direct applied power [N]

      • Conversion losses [η]

      • Conversion of AP to Work Done

  • Energy for Maintenance [M]

    • Cost for Maintenance Ratio: N/M [σ]


  • Basic model

    Basic Model

    Environment: Ecosystem

    Applied Power

    Energy Input

    N…Direct Input

    M…Maintenance

    System: Society

    Energy spent in

    Self-Organization

    Generation of

    power applied

    outside

    N

    M


    Societies based on human labor

    Societies based on Human Labor

    • Agricultural, rural societies

    • Embodied Energy in human labor

    • Energy Costs allocated to human labor

      • EI = Joules consumed by the society in order to have human laborers

      • AP = joules of muscular power delivered by human society

      • EI / AP ... „Measure of Efficiency“

        • Power generation cost


    Applied power

    Applied Power

    • Power

      • Labor charge; hours worked per year

      • Labor productivity (technological change)

      • Total Population

    • Sex ratio

      • Different power per unit time

      • Different metabolic rates

    • Non-working population

      • Reduces Applied Power

      • Age Structure


    Energy input

    Energy Input

    • Rural society based on manpower

      • Body size

      • Quality of diet

      • Exosomatic energy flows

    • Societies based on tech. Power

      • Consumption of exosomatic energy (fossil, nuc.)

    • Level of expenditure per capita

      • Standard of living


    Basic model1

    Basic Model

    Environment: Ecosystem

    Applied Power

    Energy Input

    N…Direct Input

    M…Maintenance

    System: Society

    Energy spent in

    Self-Organization

    Generation of

    power applied

    outside

    N

    M


    Differences between societies

    Differences between societies

    • rural societies

      • EI/AP = level of expenditure per capita / level of labor charge x K (for a given population)

        • Reduce consumption levels

        • Increase Labor Charge  Work more hours

          • Power treshold

      • Importance of flow of applied power provided by human labor

        • Higher value of human labor but cheaper labor (standard of living)

        • More children,etc.

      • Most Human labor invested in agriculture

    • In High-Societies

      • Human labor provides flow of information


    Differences between societies1

    Differences between societies

    • In industrial societies

      • Human labor provides flow of information

      • Technological improvements

      • Human labor is more expansive

        • More energy is needed for providing human laborers

        • More capitalization

      • High Applied Power and high complexity can only be sustained by high capitalization

        • E.g. Food Production


    Differences between societies2

    Differences between societies

    • Depend on societal and technological level

    • Question of Scale and Time

      • Higher AP through technology or more human labor (time) – Power tresholds

      • „Economy of Scale“

        • E.g. Storage

        • Cost of maintenance

    • Different Sectors? Allocation of laborers‘ time?


    Musiasem

    MuSIASEM

    • Mulit-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism

      • Dynamic energy budget

      • Labor defined as „Human activity“

      • „Useful Energy“


    Human activity

    Human Activity

    • Allocation of „Human activity“ (Time)

      • Maintenance, Reproduction, Non-Working Population, Governance

      • Total av. Time of Hum act

        • Leisure and social

          • Household

        • Paid Work

          • Agricultural, Service, Productive Sectors


    Questions

    Questions

    • Labor Productivity and Time Allocation

      • gains invested in higher Energy flows

        • Rebound Effect

      • More leisure – Less Work in Productive Sector?

        • Increased Household Consumption

      • Shift to more manual work

        • Repair, maintenance


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