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Energy and Human Labor. References. Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1990) Assessment of the energetics of human labor. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 32

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references
References
  • Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1990) Assessment of the energetics of human labor. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 32
  • Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1992) Energy Efficiency and Nutrition in Societies based on human labor. Energy of Food and Nutrition. 28 pp. 11-32.
  • Giampietro, Mario; Pimentel, David (1991) Energy Efficiency: assessing the interaction between humans and their environment. Ecological Economics 4, pp 117-144.
  • Ramos-Martin, Jesus; et al.() Why Catalonia will see its energy metabolism increas in the near future: An application of MuSIASEM
  • Giampietro, Mario; Mayumi, Kozo (2000) Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism: Introducing the Approach. Population and Environment 22(2), pp. 109-153.
approach
Approach
  • How to assess energetics of human labor?
    • concept energy efficiency in the assess. of human labor
  • Different Hierarchical levels
    • Individual levels (energy requirments)
    • Societal level
    • Ecological level
  • Different measurements
    • Monetary
    • Energetic
approach1
Approach
  • Societal energy budget
    • Characteristics of different societies
    • Assessing technological change and „measuring improvement“
      • Optimizing Energy Efficiency (trade-offs, interdependences)
    • Linking demographic, nutritional factors, etc.
    • integerate questions on ecological and individual level
systems energy analysis
Systems Energy Analysis
  • Self-organizing systems able to maintain a certain level of complexity by continuous dissipation of energy
      • „Dissipative structure theory“ (Prigogine)
  • Humans invest applied power to alter ecosystems
    • direct: energy to generate applied power
    • Maintenance of the structures needed to produce
  • Flow of energy harvested (Energy input) is the return on human investment
definitions
Definitions
  • Human Labor provides
    • Flow of applied power
    • Flow of Information
  • Direct applied power [N]
      • Conversion losses [η]
      • Conversion of AP to Work Done
  • Energy for Maintenance [M]
      • Cost for Maintenance Ratio: N/M [σ]
basic model
Basic Model

Environment: Ecosystem

Applied Power

Energy Input

N…Direct Input

M…Maintenance

System: Society

Energy spent in

Self-Organization

Generation of

power applied

outside

N

M

societies based on human labor
Societies based on Human Labor
  • Agricultural, rural societies
  • Embodied Energy in human labor
  • Energy Costs allocated to human labor
    • EI = Joules consumed by the society in order to have human laborers
    • AP = joules of muscular power delivered by human society
    • EI / AP ... „Measure of Efficiency“
      • Power generation cost
applied power
Applied Power
  • Power
    • Labor charge; hours worked per year
    • Labor productivity (technological change)
    • Total Population
  • Sex ratio
    • Different power per unit time
    • Different metabolic rates
  • Non-working population
    • Reduces Applied Power
    • Age Structure
energy input
Energy Input
  • Rural society based on manpower
    • Body size
    • Quality of diet
    • Exosomatic energy flows
  • Societies based on tech. Power
    • Consumption of exosomatic energy (fossil, nuc.)
  • Level of expenditure per capita
    • Standard of living
basic model1
Basic Model

Environment: Ecosystem

Applied Power

Energy Input

N…Direct Input

M…Maintenance

System: Society

Energy spent in

Self-Organization

Generation of

power applied

outside

N

M

differences between societies
Differences between societies
  • rural societies
    • EI/AP = level of expenditure per capita / level of labor charge x K (for a given population)
      • Reduce consumption levels
      • Increase Labor Charge  Work more hours
        • Power treshold
    • Importance of flow of applied power provided by human labor
      • Higher value of human labor but cheaper labor (standard of living)
      • More children,etc.
    • Most Human labor invested in agriculture
  • In High-Societies
    • Human labor provides flow of information
differences between societies1
Differences between societies
  • In industrial societies
    • Human labor provides flow of information
    • Technological improvements
    • Human labor is more expansive
      • More energy is needed for providing human laborers
      • More capitalization
    • High Applied Power and high complexity can only be sustained by high capitalization
      • E.g. Food Production
differences between societies2
Differences between societies
  • Depend on societal and technological level
  • Question of Scale and Time
    • Higher AP through technology or more human labor (time) – Power tresholds
    • „Economy of Scale“
      • E.g. Storage
      • Cost of maintenance
  • Different Sectors? Allocation of laborers‘ time?
musiasem
MuSIASEM
  • Mulit-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism
    • Dynamic energy budget
    • Labor defined as „Human activity“
    • „Useful Energy“
human activity
Human Activity
  • Allocation of „Human activity“ (Time)
    • Maintenance, Reproduction, Non-Working Population, Governance
    • Total av. Time of Hum act
      • Leisure and social
        • Household
      • Paid Work
        • Agricultural, Service, Productive Sectors
questions
Questions
  • Labor Productivity and Time Allocation
    • gains invested in higher Energy flows
      • Rebound Effect
    • More leisure – Less Work in Productive Sector?
      • Increased Household Consumption
    • Shift to more manual work
      • Repair, maintenance
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