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Council for Research Education SVERIGES LANTBRUKSUNIVERSITET. Supporting a culture of research and education 8 th November 2011 Dr Anne Lee www.drannelee.wordpress.com. Trends in doctoral education Identifying ‘ doctorateness ’ Recent developments in the UK relating to learning outcomes

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Council for research education sveriges lantbruksuniversitet

Council for Research EducationSVERIGES LANTBRUKSUNIVERSITET

Supporting a culture of research and education

8th November 2011

Dr Anne Lee

www.drannelee.wordpress.com


  • Trends in doctoral education

  • Identifying ‘doctorateness’

  • Recent developments in the UK relating to learning outcomes

  • Creating appropriate milestones


Trends in doctoral education taylor 2009
Trends in doctoral education (Taylor 2009)

1. Massification

Full-time students starting:

81% increase in 13 years

1996 – 9,980;

2009 – 18,075:

but recently the fastest increase is to part-time students

from HEFCE Trends and Issues Report Oct 2011


Trends in doctoral education taylor 20091
Trends in doctoral education (Taylor 2009)

1. Massification

2. Globalisation

77% UK;

12% International;

11% EUfrom HEFCE Trends and Issues Report Oct 2011


Trends in doctoral education taylor 20092
Trends in doctoral education (Taylor 2009)

  • Massification

  • Globalisation

  • Diversification

    age, gender, race, social background and more part-time students.

    30% are over 28 years

    from HEFCE Trends and Issues Report Oct 2011


Trends in doctoral education taylor 20093
Trends in doctoral education (Taylor 2009)

  • Massification

  • Globalisation

  • Diversification

  • Commodification –

    Education as a service. PRES survey measures an increase in student satisfaction of 81% in 2007 to 86% in 2011. Supervision was rated the most important area and the area about which they were most positive. Skills development also positive but problems arise with infrastructure, financial support and intellectual climate. Students critical of institutions ability to respond to student feedback.

    HEA (2011) Postgraduate Research Experience Survey


Trends in doctoral education taylor 20094
Trends in doctoral education (Taylor 2009)

  • Massification

  • Globalisation

  • Diversification

  • Commodification

  • “McDonaldisation”

    Sources of funding (2009/10)

    Research council = 35% (much of it through

    doctoral training centres)

    Institution = 26%

    Industry = 8%

    from HEFCE Trends and Issues Report Oct 2011


Trends in doctoral education taylor 20095
Trends in doctoral education (Taylor 2009)

  • Massification

  • Globalisation

  • Diversification

  • Commodification

  • “McDonaldisation”

  • Regulation

    • QAA audits against code of practice (QAA 2004)

    • UK Professional Standards Framework lists four levels of recognition: Associate Fellow, Fellow, Senior Fellow and Principal Fellow. Senior Fellow responsible for successful engagement in CPD, and supervision, management and mentoring of others.

      HEA PSF 2.11.2011


Trends in doctoral education taylor 20096
Trends in doctoral education (Taylor 2009)

  • Massification

  • Globalisation

  • Diversification

  • Commodification

  • “McDonaldisation”

  • Regulation

  • Capitalisation

    Largest subject groups chosen by students

    (28%): engineering/technology/ building/architecture and biological sciences.

    Fastest increase in creative arts/design (3%).

    from HEFCE Trends and Issues Report Oct 2011


Trends in doctoral education taylor 20097
Trends in doctoral education (Taylor 2009)

  • Massification

  • Globalisation

  • Diversification

  • Commodification

  • “McDonaldisation”

  • Regulation

  • Capitalisation

  • Multiplication

    increasing range of doctoral degrees

    (eg: Psych D; Ed D; Eng D; DBA)

    see QAA report on ‘Doctoral Degree Characteristics’


Implications for supervisory practice
Implications for supervisory practice

  • Group supervision

  • Supporting diversity

  • Meeting institutional demands for completion

  • Following polices and procedures

  • Generic skills and careers advice

  • Meeting student expectations









Identifying doctorateness
Identifying ‘ objectives and needsdoctorateness’

  • UK Framework for Higher Education

  • Dublin Descriptors

  • Researcher Development Framework

  • Stepping stones to the Doctorate


Learning outcomes at doctoral level in the uk qaa 2008
Learning outcomes at doctoral level objectives and needsin the UK (QAA 2008)


Dublin descriptors the third cycle
Dublin Descriptors: The Third Cycle objectives and needs

Qualifications are awarded to students who:

  • have demonstrated a systematic understanding of a field of study and mastery of the skills and methods of research associated with that field;

  • have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design, implement and adapt a substantial process of research with scholarly integrity;

  • have made a contribution through original research that extends the frontier of knowledge by developing a substantial body of work, some of which merits national or international refereed publication;

  • are capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas;

  • can communicate with their peers, the larger scholarly community and with society in general about their areas of expertise;

  • can be expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement in a knowledge based society;


The researcher development framework
The Researcher Development Framework objectives and needs

  • Major new approach to researcher development

  • Builds the UK research base

  • Develops world-class researchers

  • Enhances the personal, professional and career development of researchers

  • Developed through UK-wide interviews with successful researchers in a range of disciplines

  • Led by Vitae in collaboration with the HE sector and other stakeholders


The researcher development framework1
The Researcher Development Framework objectives and needs

  • Framework of the knowledge, behaviour and attributes of successful researchers

  • Enables self-assessment of strengths and areas for further development

  • Common framework across institutions in the UK

  • Universal language for communicating researcher capabilities


Using the rdf
Using the RDF objectives and needs

  • Researchers:

    • identify strengths and priorities for professional and career development

  • Managers and supervisors of researchers

    • fundamental to planning researcher development

  • Staff supporting researchers in HEIs

    • underpins strategies for researcher development

  • Policy makers, employers and other stakeholders

    • realising researchers’ potential for all sectors of the economy and society


  • 4 domains objectives and needs

  • 12 sub-domains

  • 63 descriptors


Researcher feedback
Researcher feedback objectives and needs

‘I’ve always thought of myself as being quite ambitious, driven and focussed on what I want, but the framework made me realise I can have a much larger vision.’

‘It was very good for me to reflect. I realised that nothing is stopping me but myself. The sky is the limit.’

‘The RDF will encourage me to be more proactive about my career development as it provides me with a framework (list of milestones).’

‘It put career development back into the forefront of my mind as it can often slip back when you’re engaged in what you’re doing day to day.’



PLACING QUESTIONS FOR ASSESSING A THESIS objectives and needsAdapted from Trafford V and Leshem S (2008) Stepping Stones to Achieving your Doctorate: by focussing on your viva from the start. Maidenhead. McGraw Hill/Open University Press


PLACING QUESTIONS FOR ASSESSING A THESIS objectives and needsAdapted from Trafford V and Leshem S (2008) Stepping Stones to Achieving your Doctorate: by focussing on your viva from the start. Maidenhead. McGraw Hill/Open University Press


PLACING QUESTIONS FOR ASSESSING A THESIS objectives and needsAdapted from Trafford V and Leshem S (2008) Stepping Stones to Achieving your Doctorate: by focussing on your viva from the start. Maidenhead. McGraw Hill/Open University Press


PLACING QUESTIONS FOR ASSESSING A THESIS objectives and needsAdapted from Trafford V and Leshem S (2008) Stepping Stones to Achieving your Doctorate: by focussing on your viva from the start. Maidenhead. McGraw Hill/Open University Press


Some typical examination questions
Some typical examination questions objectives and needs

  • Why did you choose this topic for your doctorate?

  • How did you arrive at your conceptual framework?

  • How did you design your research?

  • How would you justify your choice of methodology?

  • Why did you decide to use XYZ as your main instrument(s)?

  • How did you select your respondents/material/area?

  • How did you arrive at your conceptual conclusions?

  • How generalisable are your findings and why?

  • What is your contribution to knowledge?

  • We would like you to critique your thesis for us

  • What are you going to do after you gain your doctorate?

  • Is there anything else you could tell us about your thesis which you have not had the opportunity to tell us during the viva? Pp20-22 Trafford and Leshman (2008)



Creating appropriate milestones informal and formal
Creating appropriate milestones objectives and needsinformal and formal?

  • Not too many or restricting

  • Half time evaluation

  • Yearly revision of study plan

  • Continuous reflection with fellow students

  • Attending writing courses

  • Milestones in developing critical thinking? Reading and discussing scientific work

  • Helping supervisors to review papers – needs seminars and discussions around

  • Presenting at journal clubs

  • One year seminars

  • Draft papers

  • Papers submitted

  • Papers published

  • Conference presentations- smaller to larger

  • Teaching tasks

  • Submit evidence of network building

  • Involve students in writing grant applications


Creating appropriate milestones
Creating appropriate milestones? objectives and needs

  • Regular supervision meetings

  • Forms completed (by student) summarising each supervision discussion (and plans for the next). Copies kept by student and supervisor, and sent to co-supervisor.

  • Log books signed off

  • Agenda for supervision meetings planned a year ahead

  • Student completes self assessment on progress towards meeting learning outcomes and presents to supervisor(s)

  • Presentations to colleagues

  • Set assignments completed and feedback given

  • Agreed deadlines for papers to be written

    • First draft

    • Soliciting feedback

    • Submissions

  • Annual performance reviews

  • Mock defence (rehearsal)


Council for research education sveriges lantbruksuniversitet1

Council for Research Education objectives and needsSVERIGES LANTBRUKSUNIVERSITET

[email protected]


Rdf links and resources
RDF Links and resources objectives and needs

  • RDF: www.vitae.ac.uk/rdf

  • RDS: www.vitae.ac.uk/rds

  • RDF profiles:www.vitae.ac.uk/rdfprofiles

  • Downloadable CPD tool: www.vitae.ac.uk/rdftool

  • Contact: [email protected]


References
References objectives and needs

Dublin Descriptors (2004) www.jointquality.org

Higher Education Funding Council. (October 2011/33) PhD study. Trends and Profiles http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/hefce/2011/11_33/

Higher Education Academy: Postgraduate Research Experience Survey

http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/postgraduate/PRES_2011_report

Higher Education Academy Professional Standards Framework http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/ukpsf/ukpsf.pdf

Lee A (2012) Successful Research Supervision. Abingdon. Routledge.

QAA (2004) Code of Practice for Postgraduate Research Programmes http://www.qaa.ac.uk/Publications/InformationAndGuidance/Documents/postgrad2004.pdf

QAA (2008) Framework for Higher Education Qualifications http://www.qaa.ac.uk/Publications/InformationAndGuidance/Documents/FHEQ08.pdf

Taylor, S. (2009) The Post-Humboldtian Doctorate: Implications for Supervisory Practice. in V.King, F.Deepwell, L. Clouder, L. and C. Broughan (eds.) Academic Futures: Inquiries into Higher Education and Pedagogy. Cambridge, Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Trafford V and Leshem S (2008) Stepping Stones to Achieving your Doctorate: by focussing on your viva from the start. Maidenhead. McGraw Hill/Open University Press


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