Introduction to Pediatric Nursing. Who is the patient?. 6 year old female admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pneumonia Currently in 1 st grade Lives at home with Mother, Father, and 2 year old sibling Both parents work full time outside the home
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Neonate: first 28 days of life
Infancy: birth to 1 year
Toddler: 1 to 3 years
Preschooler: 3 to 6 years
School-ager: 6 to 10 years
Prepubertal: 10 to 13 years
Adolescent: 13 to 18 + years
Trust vs. Mistrust: (birth to 1 year)
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt: (1-3 yrs)
Initiative vs. Guilt: (3-6 yrs)
Identity vs. Role Confusion: (12-18 yrs)
Sensorimotor (birth to 2)
Preoperational (2 to 7)
Concrete Operational (7 to 11)
Formal Operations (11 to 15 to adulthood)
Acquisition of abstract reasoning leading to
Planning for the future
egocentric, interpret words literally
how it works
why it is being done to them
concerned about body integritySchool Age
Preparation for a procedure should begin immediately before the event
No whole milk until 1 yr b/c:
Addition of solids b/c:
Use of interventions that eliminate or minimize psychological and physical distress that is experienced by children and their families in the health care system
Anxiety r/t separation from parents during hospitalization.
Goal: child will exhibit minimal evidence of separation anxiety during hospitalization.
Outcome criteria: observe child’s positive interactions with staff members & adherence to hospital routine, appropriate for age & stage of development.
Infants: watch facial expression, FLACC
Toddlers: grimace, clench teeth, restless
Preschoolers: can locate pain, use face scale, fear bodily injury & mutilation, literal
School-aged: fear disability & death, pain is punishment, “magical quality” of germs, can use faces scale
Adolescents: use same pain scale as adults
Pain is whatever the child experiencing it says it is”.
While the nurse is administering the Denver Developmental Screening test to an infant, a mother expresses concern that her baby is not doing well. Which response is most appropriate for the nurse to make?
The RN observes a nursing student entering a toddler’s room to check vital signs and begins to take the child’s temperature first. The RN should:
The nurse should teach parents of a preschooler that the best way for them to assist their child to complete the core developmental task of the preschooler is to:
A toddler who is to be hospitalized brings a dirty, ragged Barney stuffed animal with him. The nurse’s most appropriate action is:
The mother of a preschooler expresses disappointment when her child’s weight has increased only 4 pounds since the child’s physical 1 year ago. The nurse should advise this mother that:
The nurse should suggest that the best way for a toddler’s parents to assist their child to complete the core developmental task of the toddler years is to: