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麦克斯韦电磁理论和电磁波 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第八章. 麦克斯韦电磁理论和电磁波. 8.1 位移电流. 由库仑定律和场的叠加原理可得出关于静电场的两条重要定理: ( 1 )电场的高斯定理. ( 2 )静电场的环路定理. 由毕奥 — 萨伐尔定律可得出稳恒磁场的两条重要定理:. ( 3 )磁场的高斯定理. ( 4 )安培环路定理. ( 5 )法拉第电磁感应定律. 麦克斯韦在前人工作的基础上,全面系统地考察了这些规律,并试图把这些规律推广到非稳恒的情况。正如第五章所提到的那样,麦克斯韦首先把电场的环路定理加以推广。他认为感生电动势现象实际上预示着变化的磁场周围产生涡旋电场,因此电场的环路定理在普遍情况下应是:.

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麦克斯韦电磁理论和电磁波

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8.1

1

2


3

4

5



L L


L

L



L


(displacement

current)


SL


n

v


(2)

(1)


8.2

(Maxwell equations)


VS


(Stokes theorem)


(divergence)

()

(curl)


()

()()


8.3

1.


2.

1

LCR

R


LCR

1

2


abcdLCd(dipole oscillator)

a

c

b

d


(2)(Hertz experiment)

a(spark discharge)10100Hzb

b

a


a


8.4

q

KK=0


1r

a

b


a -b

2

1

2


v r



.+


8.5

(plane electromagnetic wave)


x

y

z


x

y

z


+zzx,yxyZZ


x

y

x

y


xzxEE x y

H ExHy EH

y x

1


ztH

2

E

3

23EHz

4

T


4

EH423


41

EH


EHk EH


8.6

HE

1


1

2

K


2

VV

3

3

V


3Vl

3V

3VVV3VV3


S

4

S(Poynting vector)

kEH4(energy-flux density)


EH


S

5

r 5 SrS


8.7

1.

c

n


2.(spectrum of electromagnetic wave)

X

c


:



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