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麦克斯韦电磁理论和电磁波 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第八章. 麦克斯韦电磁理论和电磁波. 8.1 位移电流. 由库仑定律和场的叠加原理可得出关于静电场的两条重要定理: ( 1 )电场的高斯定理. ( 2 )静电场的环路定理. 由毕奥 — 萨伐尔定律可得出稳恒磁场的两条重要定理:. ( 3 )磁场的高斯定理. ( 4 )安培环路定理. ( 5 )法拉第电磁感应定律. 麦克斯韦在前人工作的基础上,全面系统地考察了这些规律,并试图把这些规律推广到非稳恒的情况。正如第五章所提到的那样,麦克斯韦首先把电场的环路定理加以推广。他认为感生电动势现象实际上预示着变化的磁场周围产生涡旋电场,因此电场的环路定理在普遍情况下应是:.

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麦克斯韦电磁理论和电磁波

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8.1

1

2


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3

4

5


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L L


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L

L


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L


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(displacement

current)


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SL


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n

v


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(2)

(1)


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8.2

(Maxwell equations)


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VS


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(Stokes theorem)


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(divergence)

()

(curl)


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()

()()


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8.3

1.


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2.

1

LCR

R


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LCR

1

2


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abcdLCd(dipole oscillator)

a

c

b

d


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(2)(Hertz experiment)

a(spark discharge)10100Hzb

b

a


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a


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8.4

q

KK=0


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1r

a

b


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a -b

2

1

2


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v r


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.+


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8.5

(plane electromagnetic wave)


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x

y

z


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x

y

z


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+zzx,yxyZZ


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x

y

x

y


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xzxEE x y

H ExHy EH

y x

1


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ztH

2

E

3

23EHz

4

T


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4

EH423


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41

EH


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EHk EH


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8.6

HE

1


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1

2

K


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2

VV

3

3

V


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3Vl

3V

3VVV3VV3


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S

4

S(Poynting vector)

kEH4(energy-flux density)


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EH


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S

5

r 5 SrS


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8.7

1.

c

n


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2.(spectrum of electromagnetic wave)

X

c


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:


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