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Indian Space Programme & Some Reflections On Collective Security In Space. Indian Space Research Organisation. April 23, 2007. 1947 : The Independence of India Developmental Issues Vast resources running to waste In short, Rich country inherited by developing society.

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Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Indian Space Programme

&

Some Reflections On Collective Security In Space

Indian Space Research Organisation

April 23, 2007


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

1947 : The Independence of India

Developmental Issues

Vast resources running to waste

In short, Rich country inherited by developing society

Formidable challenge to the builders of Nation

No wonder, Socio-economic concerns form the nucleus of the Indian Space endeavour

THE BIRTH OF INDIAN SPACE PROGRAMME


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

" ….. we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society, which we find in our country. …

- Dr. Vikram A. Sarabhai

  • Frank Admission : Existence of abundant down-to-earth problems of development.

  • Prudent assertion : Science &Technology being crucial apparatus for development.

  • Commitment : Science &Technology for socio-economic benefits in preference to display of grandeur.

  • Military Superiority

  • Technological Dominance

  • Display of Grandeur

Indian Space Program is very different.

Very deeply rooted to the society

SPACE POLICY


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

  • Space for Development

    • Abundance of Problems of Development Shaped the Indian Approach to Space

    • Two Crucial Sectors of Space Applications

      • Remote Sensing

      • Telecommunications & Meteorology

  • Self Reliance

  • Huge Investments

  • High Risk

  • Large Gestation Periods

Commercial Procurement

Quick & Effective

Self Reliance

Against a possible alternative of reliance on foreign cooperative or commercial arrangements, self reliance was targeted since " ···· large scale benefits can accrue to a large country like India only when we have our own space segment specifically tailored to meet our requirements"

INDIAN APPROACH TO SPACE


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

India is now self-reliant in space even though it does not mean producing all technological systems

Most technologies are mastered and absorbed though not all of them are put in mass production.

Immunity against "Technology Denials"

Remarkable benefits to common man in timely & Cost- effective manner

DID IT WORK ?


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

HUMAN RESOURCES

16,500 strong

BUDGET

Rs 3,200 Crore

US $ 700 m

INTERNATIONAL

COOPERATION

LARGE USER BASE

IRS

ACADEMIA & INDUSTRY

SPACE COMMERCE

INSAT

Space Assets -

Remote sensing &

Telecom satellite

Constellations

LAUNCHERS

STATE OF THE ART TECHNOLOGY

INFRASTRUCTURE

End – to - end capability

INDIAN SPACE ENDEAVOUR


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

22 Launch Vehicle Missions

TODAY, 2007

Self reliance in launching

November 21, 1963

SLV-3

ASLV

LAUNCH VEHICLE

47+ 6 Spacecraft Missions

PSLV

GSLV

10

4

Self reliance in building satellites

INSAT-3E

28.09.03

EDUSAT

20.09.04

CARTOSAT-2

10.01.07

KALPANA-1

12.09.02

INSAT-3A

10.04.03

INSAT-2E

03.04.99

INSAT-4A

22.12.05

SATELLITE

APPLICATIONS

GSAT-2

08.05.03

HAMSAT

05.05.05

INSAT-3C

24.01.02

ARYABHATA

19.04.75

INSAT-3B

22.03.00

CARTOSAT-1

05.05.05

RESOURCESAT-1

17.10.03

TES

22.10.01

IRS-1D

29.09.97

IRS-P4

26.05.99

FOUR DECADES OF INDIAN SPACE PROGRAMME


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

ORGANISATION CHART


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

  • Space Perspectives:

  • Efficient Land and Water Resources Management

  • Empowering People for Sustainable Development

700 M. Indians depend on Natural Resources for their Livelihood and Marketable Surplus

Loss to 4.5% of the GDP due to Degradation of Natural Resources

Net sown / G. Irrigated area : 143 / 75 M ha

Food grains : 211 MT (2003-04)

India's Annual Soil Loss 5334 Mt

Productivity (1635 kg/ha)

Land Degradation (182 M ha)

Forest: 64 M ha

Long Term Average Rainfall : 88 cm (+/- 85 mm)

Glaciers : 8500 km3

Closed forest : 11%

Flora / Fauna : 46000 (7.0%)

81000 (6.5%)

Depletion of ground water table

Glacier retreat >10 meters/ year

EEZ - 2 M km2

Fisheries ; Coastal : 2.8 MT

Inland : 2.8 MT

*000 m3

6

Coast line : 7500 km

(Coral reefs / Mangroves)

Wetlands : 7.6 M ha

5

Demographicpressure

Declining availability of water per capita

4

3

0.28

0.28

P

P

Disaster Vulnerability

C

C

L

L

0.14

0.14

2

(ha)

(ha)

Y

1950

1950

2000

2000

1

NATIONAL PRIORITIES

1947

1967

1987

2007

2027

2047


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

  • AGRICULTURE & SOIL

  • Crop Acreage & Production Estimation

  • Soil & Land DegradationMapping

  • Watershed Development

  • Horticulture Mission for North-East

  • LAND

  • Landuse/Land Cover Mapping

  • Wasteland Mapping

  • Urban Sprawl Studies

  • Large Scale Mapping

  • WEATHER & CLIMATE

  • Extended Range Monsoon Forecasting

  • Ocean State Forecasting

  • Regional Climate Model

  • FOREST, ENVIRONMENT, BIO

  • Forest Cover & Type Mapping

  • Forest Fire and Risk Mapping

  • Biodiversity Characterisation

  • Environmental Impact Studies

  • WATER

  • Potential Drinking Water Zones

  • Command Area Management

  • Reservoir Sedimentation

  • DISASTER SUPPORT

  • Flood Damage Assessment

  • Drought Monitoring

  • Land Slide Hazard Zonation

  • OCEAN

  • Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ)

  • Coastal Zone Mapping

EARTH OBSERVATION – APPLICATIONS


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

A milestone application towards

building social infrastructure

Implementation and Feedback status

  • RAJ

  • 67,775

     90

Ground Water Prospect Map

with Sites for Recharge

  • MP

  • 22,006

     90

  • CHG

  • 34,413

     93

  • Development of spatial information system on ground water covering problem states

  • More than 90% successrate in drilled sources (more than 2,00,000 in 7 states)

  • AP

  • 35,139

     93

 Wells Drilled

 Success Rate (%)

  • KAR

  • 34,688

     93

  • Kerala

  • 7,730

     92

RAJIV GANDHI NATIONAL DRINKING WATER MISSION


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

1986-2000 2003Reclaimed

Ecologically Degraded Land - 64 Mha - 55 Mha9 Mha

Culturable with interventions -45 Mha - 41 Mha

Categorisation for development

  • A: Sands, Barren…(High capital investment)

  • B: Marginal Agril. (Intervention needed)

  • C: Saline, Aklaline.. (Second Generation Issues)

February 1996

  • Watershed Development Programme

  • Creation of Rural Employment/Assets

  • Targeting Poverty & Eco-degradation

February 2002

B2 Category Wastelands

National perspective plan

Natural Resources Census (NRC) to monitor the changes

Village & Watershed overlay

 Districts having more than 30%

Districts having 5% to 30%

WASTELAND INVENTORY


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

OFF GOA COAST

POTENTIAL FISHING

ZONE – PFZ

(IRS P4 OCM DERIVED)

Fish catch (Kg/operation) increased by 1.5 to 2 times in West & East coast

3.0

mg/m3

5.0

0.1

POTENTIAL FISHING ZONES


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

INSAT-2E

INSAT-3C

INSAT-3B

INSAT 4A

KALPANA

GSAT-3

INSAT-3E

93.5

83

74

55

48

INSAT-3A

GSAT-2

OPERATIONAL COMMUNICATION SATELLITES


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

COMMUNICATION

  • Speech Circuits On Trunk Routes

  • VSAT Connectivity

BROADCAST

  • Television Broadcasting

  • Direct To Home (DTH)

  • TV & Radio Networking

OTHERS

  • Mobile Satellite Service

  • Search and Rescue

  • Satellite Navigation

DEVELOPMENTAL

METEOROLOGICAL

  • Tele-health

  • Tele-education

  • Emergency Communication

  • Meteorological Imaging

  • Data Collection Platform

  • Disaster Warning

INSAT SYSTEM APPLICATIONS


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

EduSat

Video

+

Audio

Video

+

Audio

Audio

5 Spot Beams in Ku Band

1 National Beam in Ku Band

1 National Beam in Ext C Band (6 Channels)

Class Room-2

Teaching-End

Class Room-1

TELE EDUCATION


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

  • 180 Hospitals

    • 146 Dist/ Rural Hospitals

    • 34 Super Specialty Hospitals

Reaching the un-reached

Referral Hospitals

Video Conferencing

Health Specialist Centre

Cardiology

Pathology

Video

Conferencing

Panel of Doctors

TELE MEDICINE VIA SATELLITE


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Space-based Services for

Community Outreach

Watershed

Information

Panchayat Planning

Training

Tele-medicine

Drinking Water

Tele-education

Weather

VILLAGE RESOURCE CENTRE (VRC)


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Chandrayaan-1

India’s First Lunar Mission

ASTROSAT

SPACE SCIENCE


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

ISRO LAUNCHERS


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Pre 1992 Scenario

IntenseTechnology Generation

Enormous Advancement

Fair Share of failures

By 1992

IRS-1A

IRS-1B

INSAT-2A

SLV

ASLV

An Instrument for Socio-Economic Benefit Enhancements

OPERATIONALIZATION OF INDIGENOUS INSAT-2A

&

ASLV LAUNCH SUCCESS

Commercialization of Space : A new dimension to Space Policy

ANTRIX was born

SPACE COMMERCE


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Reaching Indian Space Excellence to theGlobal Markets…...

Antrix Portfolio

  • LAUNCH SERVICES

  • MISSION SUPPORT

  • CONSULTANCY & TRAINING

  • SATELLITE COMPONENTS AND

  • GROUND SYSTEMS AND OTHER SERVICES

  • EARTH OBSERVATIONS

  • DATA & SERVICES

  • REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES

  • TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE

International Launch Service Customers

Customer Profile

HUGHES SPACE COMMUNICATIONS,

MATRA MARCONI SPACE, CNES, DLR, BRASILIAN INDUSTRY etc., SPACE IMAGING, MDA, ALENIA, RESTEC….

Korea : KITSAT

Germany : TUBSAT & BIRD

Belgium : PROBA

Indonesia : LAPAN-TUBSAT

Argentina : PEHUENSAT

ANTRIX CORPORATION


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

ISRO SPENT AROUND $ 700 M in 2005-2006

57% on access to space and 56.4% on bringing down benefits of space to earth

Comparison with other Space Faring Nations (2001)

Comparison within India

8 cent out of $ 100 GNP

14

Space Agencies Spend world over spend over $23b in a year.

Indian Spending : Around 2 Cents in a dollar

12

Space

Health Care

Education

10

  • A fleet of 10 Geostationary Satellites (INSAT- 2E; 3A; 3B; 3C; 3E; Kalpana-1; GSAT-2; Edusat; 4A & 4B)

  • A fleet of 7 Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS – 1C; 1D; P4; TES, Resourcesat-1, Cartosat 1&2)

  • Two operational Launchers – PSLV & GSLV

  • End-to-end capability in Remote Sensing & Telecommunication arena

  • A wide spectrum of applications benefiting the society

  • A reasonable success in commercialisation efforts

8

6

4

2

0

US

ESA

INDIA

Billionsof $

CHINA

ITALY

JAPAN

BRAZIL

FRANCE

CANADA

GERMANY

Source : World Market Prospects for Public Space Programs by Euroconsult 2002

AT WHAT COST ?


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

BILATERAL

AUSTRALIA

BRAZIL

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM CANADA

CHINA

ESA

EUMETSAT

FRANCE

GERMANY

HUNGARY

INDONESIA

ISRAEL

ITALY

MAURITIUS

MONGOLIA

NORWAY

PERU

RUSSIA

SWEDEN

SYRIA

THAILAND

NETHERLANDS

UK

UKRAINE

USA

VENEZUELA

SPACE SCIENCE

Satellite Aided Search & Rescue System

INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Some Reflections On Collective Security In Space

All the opinions expressed herein belong to the author and do not represent those of the employer or the country.

Some Reflections on Collective Security in Space


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Security of this infrastructure, their renewal and expansion as needed, and the continuity of the operational services form the core of the Indian concern about security of space.

What Space Security Means to India?


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Space Security

“Secure, sustainable and denial-free access to and use of space for peaceful purposesfor one and all”.

Space Power

“The term ‘spacepower’ is used normally with the meaning of might. However, here it is appropriate to describe it as the demonstrated ability to use the power of space for human welfare.”

What Space Security Means to India?


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

International consensus based approach

Space Debris

Sharing of data

Sharing of information on threats

  • Mitigation Guidelines

  • voluntary measures through national mechanisms”

  • a practical demonstration of the rules based approach

A Few Positive Developments


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

US Space Policy (October 31, 2006)

Recognises the risks posed by orbital debris

Seeks to minimise its creation

Promises exchange of information

Improved debris mitigation practices

Threat of Asteroid Strike on Earth & of Near Earth Object Impact

A Few Positive Developments


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Global Exploration Strategy

  • Innovation in approaches

  • Open mindedness

  • Willingness to learn from the past experiences

Whether these participating space faring nations would be able to see beyond their own interests and address the interests of the less space capable nations and in fact the entire humanity?

A Few Positive Developments


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture

1.Self Reliance

Self reliance is an instrument to harden national technological capability and space systems against the perils of “shutter control” to serve foreign policy objectives or vested commercial interests under the guise of “security” concerns.

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

“technology denial” and “control of export” to state actors is viewed as intentional threat against access to and use of space for peaceful purposes and also against the spirit of international cooperation embedded in the Outer Space Treaty

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

2.Sustained National Consensus

Sustained support of the society for the space policy and programmes is a prerequisite for a meaningful long term security in space.

On the contrary, the fragility of or the narrowness of the public support for the space activities and its policies, irrespective of the technological dominance & economic prosperity of a state, might shake the very foundations of its security architecture

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

3.International Cooperation

India recognises IC a crucial apparatus in enhancing national, regional and global security and utilises this tool effectively.

  • Collaborating with other space faring nations for enhancing scientific knowledge of our planet earth and of the universe

  • Sharing this knowledge and experience towards capacity building in less space-capable nations,

“Access to and use of space for peaceful purposes for one and all” is implemented.

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

4.The Rule of Law

“… Indian delegation considers that the development of Space Law is crucial to the orderly and organised exploration of space for the peaceful purposes. … We reaffirm that the five UN Space treaties – evolved through consensus and accepted by a large number of countries – constitute the cornerstones of the international space law.”

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

“We would like to reiterate the Indian commitment to the use of Outer Space for peaceful purposes in the common interest of mankind. We support development and continuous evolution of rule of law for the peaceful use and exploration of outer space so as to ensure benefits to all countries, in particular to the developing countries.”

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Indian delegation urges all countries to respect the sovereign right of every country to have access to Space and opportunity to utilize Space for developmental programmes. The respect for safety and security of Space assets and capabilities of all countries, without any denial or threat of denial of access to Space, is inevitable necessity for all of us to preserve and prosper together.”

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

5.National Commitment to Security

India recognises the vitality of space systems, ground segments, and the supporting link for the civil, commercial and other peaceful uses of outer space. The protection of these systems and unhindered uninterrupted continued operation of and services derived from these is its prime responsibility towards its own people and the entire humanity.

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

“Any nation that possesses medium range ballistic missiles, space tracking capabilities and the means to precisely insert a satellite into orbit also has the ability to destroy a satellite.”

Elements of Indian Space Security Architecture


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

Some Recent Disturbing Trends

1.Change in Security Landscape

US President Eisenhower to Soviet Premier Nikolai Bulganin on Jan 13 1958

“I propose that we agree that outer space should be used only for peaceful purposes. We face a decisive moment in history in relation to this matter. Both the Soviet Union and the United States are now using outer space for the testing of missiles designed for military purposes. The time to stop is now.”

Some Recent Disturbing Trends


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

“Test Ban Treaty” in August 1963

“Outer Space Treaty” in 1967

Other Space Treaties

These are manifestations of the human faith in the rule of law and collective approach to global security.

Some Recent Disturbing Trends


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

  • The abrogation of Anti Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty. 2002

  • UN First Committee - November 2005 - historical vote against PAROS

  • The linking of “Freedom of action in space” to “air power and sea power”

  • “Policy of negation”

  • Opposition to the development of new legal regimes

  • The recent test of a ground based anti satellite weapon

Some Recent Disturbing Trends


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

These constitute a potent volatile mix, which has potential to tear apart the basic fabric of collective security. This decadence in the faith in rule based approach to the global security is truly deplorable.

Some Recent Disturbing Trends


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

It is unfortunate that noble intentions of non-weaponisation of space require shoulders of violence.

Some Recent Disturbing Trends


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

  • There is no alternative to international collective approach to space security. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967 leaves no room for unilateralism of any kind.

  • A “judicious bouquet” of proposed solution

The outer space is the next frontier. Together, let us make it a pleasant experience for the entire humanity


Indian space programme some reflections on collective security in space

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