Pharmacy in public health levels of disease prevention
Download
1 / 15

Pharmacy in Public Health: Levels of Disease Prevention - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 382 Views
  • Updated On :

Pharmacy in Public Health: Levels of Disease Prevention. Add course Date here. Learning Outcomes. Compare and contrast disease prevention with health promotion. For each level of prevention, list the target population, goals, and the types of interventions used to reach those goals.

Related searches for Pharmacy in Public Health: Levels of Disease Prevention

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Pharmacy in Public Health: Levels of Disease Prevention' - abe


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Pharmacy in public health levels of disease prevention l.jpg

Pharmacy in Public Health:Levels of Disease Prevention

Add course

Date

here


Learning outcomes l.jpg
Learning Outcomes

  • Compare and contrast disease prevention with health promotion.

  • For each level of prevention, list the target population, goals, and the types of interventions used to reach those goals.

  • Describe types of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions for disease prevention at the individual, community, and national or international level.

  • Give examples of activities performed by pharmacists that demonstrate involvement at the three levels of prevention.


Disease prevention overview l.jpg
Disease Prevention Overview

  • Prevention is a cornerstone concept in public health

    • If it cannot be prevented, try to reduce its impact

  • Often tailored to a specific disease or risk

  • Prevention may occur at individual or population levels


Health to death continuum l.jpg
Health-to-Death Continuum

  • Think about various levels of healthiness, sickness, and death

    • Activities to reduce disease and increase health by where they are initiated on the continuum

Figure 9.1


Relationship between continuum and health promotion disease prevention l.jpg
Relationship between Continuum and Health Promotion & Disease Prevention

  • Health Promotion – optimize overall health. LEFT side

  • Disease Prevention – reduce occurrence and impact of specific diseases. RIGHT side

Figure 9.2


Three levels of prevention l.jpg
Three Levels of Prevention Disease Prevention

Define levels by:

  • Goal

  • Rationale

  • Target population

  • Typical activities

  • Outcome measure

Late

Disease

Early Disease

Exposed / risk factors

Whole population


Primary prevention l.jpg
Primary Prevention Disease Prevention

  • Goal:

    • Reduce number of new cases

  • Rationale:

    • By reducing exposure rates and increasing resistance, can reduce number of new cases

  • Target population:

    • Those who are most likely to be exposed and/or could increase their resistance

  • Typical activities:

    • Remove or reduce source of the risk

    • Educate and make aware of disease risk

      • Include behavioral changes to reduce exposure

    • Improve general health

  • Outcome measure: incidence of exposure; incidence of disease


  • Secondary prevention l.jpg
    Secondary Prevention Disease Prevention

    • Goal:

      • Reduce number of new cases; reduce number of severe cases

  • Rationale:

    • By reducing number of exposures and early disease that progress to more severe disease, mortality and morbidity can be reduced

  • Target population:

    • Those who have been exposed to the disease-causing agent or have early symptoms of the disease

  • Typical activities:

    • Screening for exposure and/or disease

    • Post-exposure prophylaxis

    • Early treatment to reduce impact of disease/reverse course

  • Outcome measure: incidence of disease


  • Tertiary prevention l.jpg
    Tertiary Prevention Disease Prevention

    • Goal:

      • Reduce number of complications, deaths

  • Rationale:

    • By reducing disease severity and increasing recovery, can reduce number of premature deaths or complications

  • Target population:

    • Those who have disease and need treatment

  • Typical activities:

    • Treatment tailored to the patient

    • Rehabilitation to promote recovery

  • Outcome measure: incidence of death and long-term disability


  • Levels of prevention table l.jpg
    Levels of Prevention Table Disease Prevention

    Table 9.1 Pharmacy in Public Health


    Example infectious disease l.jpg
    Example Infectious Disease Disease Prevention

    • Disease: Seasonal influenza

    • Primary prevention:

      • target population – everyone; all ages

      • Goal – reduce number of cases of flu

      • Rationale – reduce exposures; bolster immune system

      • Actions

        • Education: cough and sneeze etiquette, hand washing, know risk groups

        • Immunization: vaccination to develop antibodies

    • Interventions at the individual level:

      • vaccinate; good nutrition, sleep, and exercise to optimize health; good cough/sneeze etiquette; frequent hand washing; avoid others who are sick

    • Interventions at the community/population level:

      • Provide access to vaccines

      • Use Public Service Announcements (PSAs) to educate public

      • Prepare plans for schools, worksites, and hospitals/clinics for outbreak


    Example infectious disease12 l.jpg
    Example: Infectious Disease Disease Prevention

    • Disease: Seasonal influenza

    • Secondary prevention:

      • target population – everyone who has been exposed to the virus

      • Goal – reduce number and severity of cases of flu

      • Rationale – early treatment to reduce severity of disease

      • Actions

        • Screening: identify those who are most likely exposed from those who are not

        • Early treatment

        • Immunization: vaccination to develop antibodies

    • Interventions at the individual level:

      • Post flu symptoms and suggestions for self-care

      • Provide antiviral within 48 hours of symptom onset

    • Interventions at the community/population level:

      • Use quarantine or isolation measures; ban gatherings of large groups; travel restrictions

      • Send sick children home from school; enforce sick leave at work


    Example infectious disease13 l.jpg
    Example: Infectious Disease Disease Prevention

    • Disease: Seasonal influenza

    • Tertiary prevention:

      • target population – everyone who has influenza

      • Goal – reduce number and severity of flu-related complications and deaths

      • Rationale treatment and rehabilitation can reduce deaths and help return individual to a normal lifestyle

      • Actions

        • Provide supportive care and early treatment of complications

        • Use rehabilitation to increase recovery of normal lifestyle

    • Interventions at the individual level:

      • Tailor treatment to symptoms; monitor and treat complications

    • Interventions at the community/population level:

      • Ensure access to treatment (health insurance, local clinics available)

      • Protect employees who are out sick from losing jobs

      • Research to find better treatments; monitor resistance patterns


    Role of pharmacists in prevention l.jpg
    Role of Pharmacists in Prevention Disease Prevention

    • Traditionally involved in

      • Tertiary prevention for individuals

      • Secondary prevent for individuals

    • Can expand into

      • Primary prevention for individuals or populations

      • Tertiary or secondary prevention for populations


    Summary l.jpg
    Summary Disease Prevention

    • Disease prevention aims to reduce avoidable morbidity and premature mortality by reducing exposure and disease severity, and facilitating recovery

    • Disease prevention efforts complement health promotion efforts

    • There are three levels of prevention. They vary in their target populations, rationales, goals, activities, and outcome measures

    • Pharmacists can be involved in prevention at both the individual patient and community or population levels.


    ad