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Basic Electricity . Basic Electrical Terms. Voltage: the driving force, potential symbol is V, units are Volts Resistance: resistance to flow symbol is R, units are Ohms Current: a measure of flow symbol is I, units are Amps Power: rate energy is produced or used

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Basic electrical terms
Basic Electrical Terms

  • Voltage: the driving force, potential

    • symbol is V, units are Volts

  • Resistance: resistance to flow

    • symbol is R, units are Ohms

  • Current: a measure of flow

    • symbol is I, units are Amps

  • Power: rate energy is produced or used

    • symbol is P, units are Watts


Voltage

Water makes a great analogy for electrical systems.

Higher voltage is just like running a pump at higher

pressure.

Voltage


Current amps

The fish are swimming in current (water).

In a piece of copper wire the electron moves from orbital ring to orbital ring of adjacent atoms.

Current (amps)





Ohm s law relates these terms
Ohm’s Law relates these terms

Ohm’s Law:

E = I • R

I = E ÷ R


Distribution system components
Distribution system components

Utility

Transmits at high voltageto reduce line losses

480, 600,1K, 10K Vac

Reduces voltageto useable levels

Distributes current andprotects circuits

120, 208,277 Vac

Heating cable

Uses electricity togenerate heat

Subpanel withcircuit breakers

Transformer


Standard voltages
Standard Voltages

  • Commercial and industrial facilities

    • 120, 208, 277, 480, 600 Volts, 3 phase

  • Residential buildings

    • 120 and 240 Volts

  • We differentiate our products by voltage

    • 120 Volt vs. 240 Volt

    • 120 Volt products are designed for 100 – 130 Volts240 Volt products are designed for 200 – 277 Volts


Standard circuit breakers
Standard circuit breakers

  • Provide over-current protection for short circuits only

    • Trips if current flowing exceeds breaker rating

  • Typical ratings for heat-tracing applications:

    • 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 amp

  • Manufacturers:

    • Square D, GE, Cutler-Hammer


Ground fault circuit breakers
Ground fault circuit breakers

  • In addition to over-current protection, these breakers trip if a small fault current flows to ground

    • 5 mA level for personnel protection (GFCI)

    • 30 mA level for equipment protection (GFEPD)

  • Required for all heating cable circuits by NEC, CEC and by Tyco Thermal Controls

  • Tyco Thermal Controls recommends 30 mA level equipment protection to avoid nuisance tripping

  • Selection Guide on Web site shows breakers available for different voltages; available in Tyco Thermal Controls price list


  • Ground fault breaker operation
    Ground fault breaker operation

    Circuit Breaker

    Heating Cable

    Line A

    Line B

    Fault

    Ground

    Sensor

    If currents in Line A and Line B are not equal, some current is going to ground through a fault. The ground fault circuit detects this imbalance and trips the circuit breaker.


    Electrical issues in heat tracing
    Electrical Issues in Heat-Tracing

    • Maximum circuit lengths

      • Self-regulating cables draw more current at start-up temperature than at steady-state temperature

      • Thus, maximum circuit lengths are based on start-up current, not steady-state current

      • Tyco Thermal Controls calculates maximum circuit lengths to ensure current draw does not exceed breaker rating

      • Always use the design guide or TraceCalc for circuit lengths

    • Transformer sizing

      • Safe transformer sizing is based current draw at start-up temperatures rather than at steady-state

      • A conservative solution is:

        transformer load = breaker rating x 0.8 x voltage


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