# Appearance-Based Equivalence Checking - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 19

Appearance-Based Equivalence Checking. Speaker: Daw-Ming Li Advisor: Chun-Yao Wang 2009.02.10. Introduction. Traditional approaches of equivalence checking Building BDDs SAT solving Drawback Exponential growth of required memory and runtime.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Appearance-Based Equivalence Checking

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

## Appearance-Based Equivalence Checking

Speaker: Daw-Ming Li

2009.02.10

### Introduction

• Traditional approaches of equivalence checking

• Building BDDs

• SAT solving

• Drawback

• Exponential growth of required memory and runtime

### Appearance-based approach

• Given two circuits N1,N2

• Transform circuits N1 and N2 according to their appearance

• Extract the same appearance of N1 and N2 to construct the circuit I

### Terminologies

• Given two circuits N1 and N2

• Circuit I is an isomorphism between N1 and N2

• Largest Common Connected Subgraph(LCCS)

• Largest Common Connected PI Subgraph (LCCPIS)

• Chun Chi’s work-Rewiring using IRredundancy Removal and Addition (IRRA)

### Ideas

• Find the LCCS between N1 and N2

• Apply IRRA, transform the LCCS to the LCCPIS

• Delete the LCCPIS from circuits N1 and N2, and add the LCCPIS to circuit I

• Goal

• Reduce the size of circuits N1 and N2 as small as possible

### Flow chart

Transform N1 and N2 to

NAND-NOT circuit

N1 and N2 are

equivalent

Find the LCCS between

circuits N1 and N2

True

Are both N1 and N2 empty?

True

Is N1 or N2 empty?

True

False

False

Apply the IRRA technique,

transform the LCCS to

the LCCPIS

Redundant?

False

Delete the LCCPIS from N1 and

N2, and add the LCCPIS to I

N1 and N2 are not

equivalent

...

...

N1_0

N2_0

..

..

..

..

N2:

N1:

N1_1

N2_1

N1_2

N2_2

..

..

N1_3

N2_3

### Example

Find the largest common connected subgraph

### Example

...

...

N1_0

N2_0

..

..

..

..

N2:

N1:

N1_1

N2_1

N1_2

N2_2

..

..

N1_3

N2_3

N2_4

Apply the IRRA technique, transform the LCCS to

the LCCPIS

### Example

...

...

N1_0

N2_0

..

..

..

..

N2:

N1:

N1_1

N’2_1

N1_2

N2_2

..

..

N1_3

N2_3

Put the LCCPIS to the isomorphism set

### Example

...

...

N1_0

N2_0

..

..

..

..

..

N2:

N1:

N2_2

N1_1

N’2_1

I:

..

N2_3

The PO of LCCPIS == The new PI of N1 and N2

..

..

### Example

...

...

N1_0

N2_0

..

..

..

I_1

N2:

N1:

N1_1

N’2_1

I:

..

I_2

Find the LCCPIS between N1 and N2,

and iterate the procedure until N1 or N2 is empty

### Case I

...

I

N1:

N2:

I:

……

Both N1 and N2 are empty

Circuits N1 and N2 are equivalent

### Case II

...

...

N2:

N2

N1:

I

I:

……

……

N1 is empty, but N2 is not empty

Check whether N2 is redundant or not

If N2is redundant, circuits N1 and N2 are equivalent

### Case III

...

...

N2:

N2

N1:

I

I:

……

……

N1 is empty, but N2 is not empty

Check whether N2 is redundant or not

If N2is not redundant, circuits N1 and N2 are not equivalent

...

...

N2_0

N2_0

..

..

..

..

N2:

N2:

N’2_1

N2_2

N2_1

N2_2

..

..

N2_3

N2_3

N2_4

...

...

N2_0

N2_0

..

..

..

..

N2:

N2:

N’2_1

N2_2

N2_1

N2_2

..

..

N2_3

N2_3

N2_4

...

...

N2_0

N2_0

..

..

..

..

N2:

N2:

N’2_1

N2_2

N2_1

N2_2

..

..

N2_3

N2_3

N2_4

### Reference

• “A Direct Algorithm to Find a Largest Common Connected Induced Subgraph of Two Graphs”, Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 162-171, 2005.

• “Rewiring using IRredundancy Removal and Addition”, Chun-Chi

### Future work

• Consider the situation when N1 or N2 cannot become empty set

• Study more papers