Advanced metallic materials
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Advanced metallic materials. Prof. Priit Kulu. Outline. High-strength structural steels High-performance tool steels Metallic-ceramic materials Light-weight metals and alloys Superalloys. 2. Metallic materials with superior properties. Structural alloys.

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Advanced metallic materials

Prof. Priit Kulu


Outline

  • High-strength structural steels

  • High-performance tool steels

  • Metallic-ceramicmaterials

  • Light-weight metals and alloys

  • Superalloys

Advanced metallic materials

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Metallic materials with superior properties

Structuralalloys

Mg- and Al-alloys with superior properties, Al-metaglass, foams

Superconductive NbTi, Nb3Sn, Nb3Ge

Ti-alloys with thermomechanical properties, superalloys, maragingsteels, intermetallides, high-density alloys, shape-memory alloys

Neodymium rare-earth magnets (alloysofNd, Fe and B) are strongestknownpermanentmagnets. Sm-Comagnets

Amorphousalloyswithchemical and thermalproperties, Ni- and Fe aluminates

Biocompatible Ti-alloys

Advanced metallic materials

Advanced metallic materials

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Strength groups of materials

Classification based on tensilestrength (Rm) of materials

  • Low-strength (<250 N/mm2)

  • Mid-strength (250...750 N/mm2)

  • High-strength (750...1500 N/mm2)

  • Ultrahigh-strength (<1500 N/mm2)

Advanced metallic materials

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Production technologies of hihg-strength steels and alloys

Advanced metallic materials

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  • High-strength structural steels

  • High-performance tool steels

  • Metallic-ceramicmaterials

  • Light-weight metals and alloys

  • Superalloys

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High-strength steel

...what is it?

The end of 1920-s

Steel St 52 (S355) for bridge construction 

Today

S355 is standard grade

 Definition for “high-strength” isdependent on level of development.

Steel ReH > 355 MPa

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Alloying of ferrite

Hardening

Ageing

Ageing time, t

Alloying elements, %

Methods for increasing strength

  • structure refinement

  • alloying – B; microalloying elements – Nb, Ti, V and N

  • low carbon steels  transgranular fracture

  • two- and multi-phase structures – F+M; F+M+B

  • dispersion strengthening – micro- and nanosteels

  • deformation hardening:

    - low- & high-temperature

    - isothermal

    - marforming

Advanced metallic materials


Heat treatable boron-steels

≈ 0,003% of B  increased through-hardenability  0,002...0,003% of B in solid solution has the same effect on hardenability than 0,7% Cr; 0,5% Mo or 1% Ni

Through-hardenability  diameter up to 200 mm

C24CR Rp0,21000; Rm1500; A 7%

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Low-alloy high-strength steels

Also known as HSLA steels

  • C = 0,2..0,3% ; alloying el: Mn, Si

  • Micro alloying with Nb, Ti and/or V – dispersion strengthening + grain refinementHX340LADHX460LAD

  • Rp0,2560; Rm640 N/mm2; A – min 15%

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Two- and multi-phased steels

Also known as duplex (DP) and complex (CP) steels

Ultra-High-strength (UHS) ductile steels

  • Two-phase LITEC DP Rp0,2750 N/mm2; Rm980 N/mm2; A – min 10%

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- Multi-phase LITEC CP Rp0,2900; Rm980 N/mm2; A – 7%

DP-steel

CP-steel

→good formability and high strength

→ability of high energy absorption

→high strain-hardening rate

→good fatigue strength

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Maraging (martensite-ageing) steels (1)

Martensitic steels ( C%)

  • low ductility and toughness in case of high Rm

  • M decomposition, formation of carbide phase  brittleness

    Maraging steels in 1980

  • low C-content (0,03%)  transgranular fraction

  • alloying el. – Ni (17...25%), Mo + Ti, Al, Ta etc.

    Quenching  C-free martensite,

    Ageing  intermetallides (4 – 5) nm, (NiTi, Ni3Ti, NiAl, Ni3Mo etc.)

    Rm  2000 N/mm2, Rp0,2  1500 N/mm2, A = 10 - 12%

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Maraging steels (2)

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Termomechanically processed / deformation hardened

high temperature

low temperature

isothermal

marforming

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Thermomechnical rolling


TRIP-steels (Transformation Induced Plasticity)

  • Low alloy steels (car industry)

    0,2 – 0,3 % C; 1,5 – 2,0 % Mn, Si + Al

  • High alloy Ni-Cr steeks

    0,2 – 0,3 % C; 8 – 32 % Ni; 8 – 14 % Cr+Mn (0,5 – 2,5%), Mo, Si

    Quenching (985 – 1200 °C) → F, B, A

    Deformation (< Trecr = 250 – 550 °C), A → M

    Rm →1700, Rp0,2 → 1550, A =50 – 60 %, ↑KIC, σ-1


Rp0,2 N/mm2

KTMT

TMT + def. ageing

2000

Maraging steels (high-alloy)

1000

Low-alloy steels

20

40

60

60

A%

Strength-plasticity of high-strength steels

TRIP-steels

TMT + def. ageing


  • High-strength structural steels

  • High-performance tool steels

  • Metallic-ceramicmaterials

  • Light-weight metals and alloys

  • Superalloys

Advanced metallic materials

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Advanced tool steels (1)

I generation of high-speed steels (HSS)

  • carbide temper hardness steels 500 - 650 0C, e.g. HS 6 – 5 – 2 – 5W-Mo -V –Co

  • Intermetallic temper hardness steels650 - 750 0C, Co7W6, (CoFe)7W6 etc.(11 – 20%)W; 7% Mo; (1-3%)V; (20 – 25%)Co

    Structure (cast and rolled)

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Advanced tool steels (2)

II generation of high-speed steels – PM steels (PM/HIP)

Uddeholmi steels Vanadis 4, 6, 10, 23, 30, 60 (Super Clean) (1,3 - 2,9%) C; → 6,5 W; (1,5 - 7%) Mo; (3,1 - 9,8%) V; → 10,5% Co

Structure (PM / HIPed)

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Advanced tool steels (3)

III generation of high-speed steels – Sprayformed,

SF + HIP PM steels,

Vanadis 4 EXTRA

WEARTEC

2,8 C; 8,9 V; 7,0 Cr; 2,3 Mo; Si; Mn

ROLTEC

1,4C; 4,6Cr; 3,7 V; 3,2 Mo; Si; Mn

TOUGHTEC

1,6C; 7,2V; 5,0 Cr; 2,3 Mo; Si; Mn

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SF /HIP

Similar to PM/HIP, slab formation by spraying methods

High-Tech Materials & Technologies

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TRZ, GPa

Diameter of carbide particles, m

Strength of high-speed steels

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  • High-strength structural steels

  • High-performance tool steels

  • Metallic-ceramicmaterials

  • Light-weight metals and alloys

  • Superalloys

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Classification of wear resistant materials depending on volumetric content of hard phase

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Metallic-ceramic composites

Carbide steels and alloys

  • Ferro-TiC

    Steel (50 - 70)% -TiC

  • Double-reinforced MMC

    (Cr-steel + 20%VC) + 20%WC

  • Self-fluxing alloys

    NiCrSiB +  50% (WC-Co)

    Ceramic/metallic

  • TiC-NiMo – (50 - 60)% (NiMo)(2:1) 920 – 1620 HV10

  • Cr3C2-NiCr – (50 - 60)% NiCr

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  • High-strength structural steels

  • High-performance tool steels

  • Metallic-ceramicmaterials

  • Light-weight metals and alloys

  • Superalloys

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Light-weight materials – Mg alloys

Mg-alloys (Mg:  = 1740 kg/m3, Ts – 649 0C)

Alloying elements: Al (3 - 10%); Zn, up to (5 – 6%); Mn; Zr

Rm 300 N/mm2 (deformable alloys)Rm/  20

220 N/mm2 (cast alloy)

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Light-weight materials – Al alloys

Al-alloys

  • Al-Li alloys (Li is only dopant, which  Rm, E, however  = 2500 kg/m3) 2Li, 4Mg,  Rm = 220 – 350; Rp0,2 = 135 – 210 N/mm2

  • Powder-aluminum-alloys

    • dispersion strengthened Al-alloys (SAP-Al2O315%, Al-C-alloys – Al4C3 20 volume%), allowed working temperature up to 550 0C

  • Foam-aluminum ( ~ 200 kg/m3)

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  • High-strength structural steels

  • High-performance tool steels

  • Metallic-ceramicmaterials

  • Light-weight metals and alloys

  • Superalloys

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Superalloys

…alloys capable of service at high temperatures, usually above 1000 °C

→ heat-resistant high-temperature strength alloys

  • Ni-alloys

  • Co-alloys

    heat resistance (oxidation resistance > 600°C)

    refractory steels = heat res. + high temp. strength

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Ni-alloys

Ni uses: ca 60% – stainless steels

12% – Ni-alloys

10% – coatings

10% – alloy steels

Heat resistant alloys (superalloys)

  • wrought (Inconel Ni – 20-23 Cr; Hastelloy Ni- 7-22 Cr-Co)

  • cast ( polycrystalline, directionally solidified, single crystal)

  • PM (HIP-ed, IN 100, Rene 95→ gasturbine disk)

    718 (cast) Ni – (4,75 – 5,5%) Nb → aerospace, nuclear structural

    applications (-250 – +700 °C).

    MA 754 PM/HIP Ni – 1% Y2O3

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Co-alloys

Co uses: ca46% – superalloys

15% – steels

10% – cemented carbides

Wear resistant alloys

  • Stellite – Co (10 –30%); Cr (1,5 –22) Ni; up to 15% W; 1 Mo

    Heat resistant alloys

  • wrought Co + (20 –30%) Cr; (14 –15%) W

  • cast Co +(23 –29%) Cr; (1 –10 %) Ni; 7 W

    Corrosion resistant alloys

    Ultimet Co + 26Cr; 9Ni; 5Mo; 2W

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General stress-rupture behaviour of superalloys


Thank you for your attention!

TUT materials engineering web-site:

www.ttu.ee/mti

[email protected]


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