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Light: Geometric Optics. Introduction – 23-1, 23-4, 23-5, 24-10. Light. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Light. Light is the Part of the EM spectrum that stimulates the retina of the human eye ROY G BIV. Ray Model of Light. Light travels in straight line in vacuum or uniform media

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light geometric optics

Light: Geometric Optics

Introduction – 23-1, 23-4, 23-5, 24-10

light
Light
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
light1
Light
  • Light is the Part of the EM spectrum that stimulates the retina of the human eye
  • ROY G BIV
ray model of light
Ray Model of Light
  • Light travels in straight line in vacuum or uniform media
  • Ray model assumes straight line travel for light
  • Ray Optics – ray diagrams to study travel of light; ignores wave nature of light
speed of light
Speed of Light
  • Before 1700, thought to be instantaneous
  • Galileo worked on speed of light
    • Couldn’t believe that it was that fast!
  • Ole Roemer – first to determine light traveled with measureable speed
  • A.A. Michelson – measured light between two mountaintops in California
    • 2.997996 x 108 +/- .00004 x 108 m/s
  • 1960’s Lasers found to measure speed of light better than atomic clocks v = λf = c
sources of light
Sources of Light
  • luminous--body emits light
  • illuminated--body reflects light
  • incandescent--glows HOT; luminous; W wire is heated by electricity and glows inside a light bulb
  • luminous flux, P--rate at which light is emitted from a source
    • Lumen – lm – unit of flux
  • illuminance, E--lm/m2 or lux, lx
illumination
Illumination
  • 100W light bulb – 1750 lm
  • If 1m sphere: 1750 lm / (4π(1)2) = 1750/4π lx
  • If 2m sphere: 1750 lm / (4π(2)2) = 1750/16πlx
  • Candela cd – measures luminous intensity
    • 1750/4π lx = 139 cd
illumination1
Illumination
  • To increase illumination
    • increase flux of alternate source
    • decrease distance between source and surface
  • Illuminance= E = P/4πd2
    • perpendicular line between source and surface
    • point sources
light and matter
Light and Matter
  • Transparent – light through; transmitted
  • Translucent — light sort of through; transmits and diffuses light
  • Opaque – light not through; absorbs reflects all light; no transmission
color models
Color Models

Additive - RGB

Subtractive CMY

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