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Light: Geometric Optics. Introduction – 23-1, 23-4, 23-5, 24-10. Light. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Light. Light is the Part of the EM spectrum that stimulates the retina of the human eye ROY G BIV. Ray Model of Light. Light travels in straight line in vacuum or uniform media

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Light geometric optics

Light: Geometric Optics

Introduction – 23-1, 23-4, 23-5, 24-10


Light
Light

  • Electromagnetic Spectrum


Light1
Light

  • Light is the Part of the EM spectrum that stimulates the retina of the human eye

  • ROY G BIV


Ray model of light
Ray Model of Light

  • Light travels in straight line in vacuum or uniform media

  • Ray model assumes straight line travel for light

  • Ray Optics – ray diagrams to study travel of light; ignores wave nature of light


Speed of light
Speed of Light

  • Before 1700, thought to be instantaneous

  • Galileo worked on speed of light

    • Couldn’t believe that it was that fast!

  • Ole Roemer – first to determine light traveled with measureable speed

  • A.A. Michelson – measured light between two mountaintops in California

    • 2.997996 x 108 +/- .00004 x 108 m/s

  • 1960’s Lasers found to measure speed of light better than atomic clocks v = λf = c


Sources of light
Sources of Light

  • luminous--body emits light

  • illuminated--body reflects light

  • incandescent--glows HOT; luminous; W wire is heated by electricity and glows inside a light bulb

  • luminous flux, P--rate at which light is emitted from a source

    • Lumen – lm – unit of flux

  • illuminance, E--lm/m2 or lux, lx


Illumination
Illumination

  • 100W light bulb – 1750 lm

  • If 1m sphere: 1750 lm / (4π(1)2) = 1750/4π lx

  • If 2m sphere: 1750 lm / (4π(2)2) = 1750/16πlx

  • Candela cd – measures luminous intensity

    • 1750/4π lx = 139 cd


Illumination1
Illumination

  • To increase illumination

    • increase flux of alternate source

    • decrease distance between source and surface

  • Illuminance= E = P/4πd2

    • perpendicular line between source and surface

    • point sources


Light and matter
Light and Matter

  • Transparent – light through; transmitted

  • Translucent — light sort of through; transmits and diffuses light

  • Opaque – light not through; absorbs reflects all light; no transmission


Color models
Color Models

Additive - RGB

Subtractive CMY



Dual polarizers
Dual Polarizers


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