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Bell Review Question. Name the 8 planets in our solar system. Name the 4 Jovian and the 4 Terrestrial planets. The Sun. The Sun. Earth’s Primary Source of Energy.

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bell review question

Bell Review Question

Name the 8 planets in our solar system.

Name the 4 Jovian and the 4 Terrestrial planets.

the sun

The Sun

The Sun

Earth’s Primary Source of Energy

slide3

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields.

It has a diameter of about 1,392,684 km, about 109 times that of Earth.

slide4

Chemically, about 75 % of the Sun\'s mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium.

slide5

Chemically, about 75 % of the Sun\'s mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium.

  • Thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium.
slide6

Chemically, about 75 % of the Sun\'s mass consists of hydrogen, while the rest is mostly helium.

  • Thus generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium.
  • Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single nucleus.
slide7

The average distance of the Sun from the Earth is approximately 150 million kilometers or 1 AU, (an AU is Astronomical Unit), though the distance varies as the Earth moves from perihelion in January to aphelion in July.

  • At this average distance, light travels from the Sun to Earth in about 8 minutes and 19 seconds.
  • The energy of this sunlight supports almost all life on Earth by photosynthesis, and drives Earth\'s climate and weather.
slide8

The Sun is a magnetically active star.

  • It supports a strong, changing magnetic field that varies year-to-year and reverses direction about every eleven years around solar maximum.
slide11

The surface temperature of the sun is about 5,780 K, which is 5,500 °C or about 9900 °F, while at the core it\'s something on the order of 15 million °C or 27 million °F.

slide14

Shorter wavelengths of radiation are associated with greater energy.

  • The wavelength of visible light ranges from 0.4 micrometer (violet) to 0.7 micrometer (red).
slide15

Approximately 50 percent of the solar energy that strikes the top of the atmosphere reaches Earth’s surface. About 30 percent is reflected back to space. The remaining 20 percent of the energy is absorbed by clouds and the atmosphere’s gases.

slide16

Radiation reflected by a surface is called its albedo.

Sample albedos surface Low albedo Typical albedo

Fresh asphalt 0.04

Worn asphalt 0.12

Conifer forest 0.15

Bare soil 0.17

Green grass 0.25

Desert sand 0.40

New concrete 0.55

Ocean Ice 0.5–0.7

Fresh snow High albedo 0.80–0.90

slide17

Radiant energy that is absorbed heats Earth and eventually is reradiated skyward. Because Earth has a much lower surface temperature than the Sun, its radiation is in the form of long wave infrared radiation.

The atmosphere is heated from the ground up. The general drop in temperature with increased altitude in the troposphere (about 6.5°C/kilometer, a figure called the normal lapse rate) supports this fact.

slide18

Through the heating of Earth’s atmosphere by the long wave radiation from the surface and the selective absorption of such radiation; results in what is know as the Greenhouse Effect.

slide19

Because of the annual balance that exists between incoming and outgoing radiation, called the heat budget, Earth’s average temperature remains relatively constant.

  • The radiation balance and thus the temperature of a given place fluctuates with changes in cloud cover, atmospheric composition, and most important, Sun angle and length of daylight.
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