Evolution of the 2006 07 el n i o the role of intraseasonal to interannual time scale dynamics
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Evolution of the 2006-07 El N iño : The Role of Intraseasonal to Interannual Time Scale Dynamics PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Evolution of the 2006-07 El N iño : The Role of Intraseasonal to Interannual Time Scale Dynamics. Michael J. McPhaden NOAA/PMEL Seattle, Washington. CLIVAR ENSO Workshop Guangzhou, China 26-28 November 2007. Correo - Perú. 2 August 2006.

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Evolution of the 2006-07 El N iño : The Role of Intraseasonal to Interannual Time Scale Dynamics

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Evolution of the 2006 07 el n i o the role of intraseasonal to interannual time scale dynamics

Evolution of the 2006-07 El Niño:The Role of Intraseasonal to Interannual Time Scale Dynamics

Michael J. McPhaden

NOAA/PMEL

Seattle, Washington

CLIVAR ENSO Workshop

Guangzhou, China

26-28 November 2007


Evolution of the 2006 07 el n i o the role of intraseasonal to interannual time scale dynamics

Correo - Perú

2 August 2006

“ENSO-neutral conditions are expected to continue for the next one to three months, with a 50% chance that weak El Niño conditions will develop by the end of 2006.”

NCEP, 10 Aug 2006


Ni o 3 4 predictions from july 2006 initial condition

Niño-3.4 Predictions from July 2006 Initial Condition

“ENSO-neutral conditions are expected to continue for the next one to three months, with a 50% chance that weak El Niño conditions will develop by the end of 2006.”

NCEP, 10 Aug 2006

“Despite considerable efforts in model and forecast system development, progress in improving prediction skill has been very modest in recent years…”

Science, 15 Dec 2006

Compiled by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society


Upper ocean heat content based recharge oscillator theory of jin 1997

Upper Ocean Heat Content (Based Recharge Oscillator Theory of Jin, 1997)

  • Build up of excess heat content along equator is a necessary precondition for El Niño to occur.

  • El Niño purges excess heat to higher latitudes, which terminates the event.

  • The time between El Niños is determined by the time to recharge.

WWV based on BMRC analysis of TAO/TRITON, XBT and Argo data

Warm Water Volume (WWV): An Index for Upper Ocean Heat Content Meinen & McPhaden, 2000


2006 07 el ni o

2006-07 El Niño


January 2006 september 2007

NCEP Forecast, 9 Mar ‘06: “La Niña conditions are expected to continue during the next 3-6 months.”

January 2006-September 2007

What happened in the next 3-6 months: Unexpected episodic relaxation of the trade winds triggers onset of El Niño


January 2006 september 20071

Aug-Oct ‘06: Strong westerly wind bursts and downwelling Kelvin waves amplify warming.

January 2006-September 2007


Mjo convection

Slow eastward progression of convection along the equator punctuated by episodic intraseasonal convective flair ups.

Some of the intraseasonal variability originates over the Indian Ocean in the form of the “Madden- Julian Oscillation.”

Cloudiness & Rainfall (OLR, 5°N-5°S)

Mar 2006

MJO Convection

Feb 2007

cloudy/wet clear/dry

Indian | Pacific | Atlantic


Peak conditions

Peak Conditions


Peak conditions1

Peak Conditions


January 2006 september 20072

Late Dec ‘06-Feb ‘07: Sudden demise linked to strengthening trade winds and rapid thermocline shoaling.

January 2006-September 2007

NCEP Forecast, 7 Dec ‘06: “El Niño conditions are likely to continue through May 2007.”


Demise indian ocean influence

Demise: Indian Ocean Influence?


Linear equatorial wave model mcphaden and yu 1999

Linear Equatorial Wave Model(McPhaden and Yu, 1999)

Purpose: Compare magnitude of Kelvin waves generated at the western boundary via Rossby wave reflection (“delayed oscillator”) vs directly wind force upwelling Kelvin wave

  • Daily ECMWF wind forcing, 1979-2007

  • Rectangular basin, 80°W-120°E

  • Kelvin plus 6 Rossby waves (long wave approximation)

  • 4 vertical modes

  • Linear damping (12 mon time scale for first vertical mode)

  • Boundary reflections 80% efficient.

  • Anomalies relative to mean seasonal cycle

  • Detrend wind forcing and sea level output


Model and observations

SST Heat Content T/P-Jason SL Model SL

TAO/TRITON

Model and Observations


Model wind forced and boundary generated kelvin and rossby waves

Model Wind-Forced and Boundary Generated Kelvin and Rossby Waves

Rossby Kelvin Kelvin Rossby

Wind-Forced W. Boundary Wind-Forced E. Boundary


Summary

Summary

  • The 2006-07 El Niño was a weak-to-moderate amplitude “dateline” event.

  • Ocean heat content provided 1-2 season lead time forecast skill during developmental phase. However, onset, amplitude, and demise were not well predicted.

  • Intraseasonal MJO was a significant source of high frequencyatmospheric and oceanic variability and one of the factors confounding attempts to forecast the evolution of the event.

  • Strongest westerly wind bursts in Aug & Oct 2006 occurred after onset of warming, consistent with the idea of “state dependent stochastic forcing.”

  • Strongest MJO event occurred coincident with basin scale warming in December 2006 following the termination of the IOD event.

  • MJO-related easterlies in Dec 2006 forced an upwelling Kelvin wave response that abruptly accelerated the demise of the El Niño.


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • One path to improved ENSO forecast skill is to improve the representation of high frequency atmospheric variability, especially that related to the MJO, in forecast models.

  • It’s important to accurately represent tropical Indian Ocean variability and Indo-Pacific atmospheric teleconnections in seasonal forecasts models.


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