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15s. .5s. 6-15 s. 6-15 s. …. …. …. 1000Hz. 1200Hz. Constant Fixation. Controls: N=41, p<1x10 -10. Patients: N=44, p<1x10 -5. MFG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 1. Visit 1. Slice Depth: Y=-36. Controls Patients. Visit 2. MFG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 2. Controls: N=41, p<1x10 -10.

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15s

.5s

6-15 s

6-15 s

1000Hz

1200Hz

Constant Fixation


Controls:

N=41, p<1x10-10

Patients:

N=44, p<1x10-5

MFG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 1

Visit 1

Slice Depth: Y=-36

Controls

Patients

Visit 2

MFG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 2


Controls:

N=41, p<1x10-10

Patients:

N=44, p<1x10-5

MFG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 1

Visit 1

Controls

Patients

Slice Depth: Z=-11

Visit 2

MFG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 2


STG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 1

Controls:

N=41, p<1x10-10

Patients:

N=44, p<1x10-5

Visit 1

Controls

Patients

Slice Depth: Y=-65

Visit 2

STG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 2


Controls:

N=41, p<1x10-10

Patients:

N=44, p<1x10-5

STG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 1

Visit 1

Controls

Patients

Slice Depth: Z=-3

Visit 2

STG, Right Hemisphere, Visit 2


Axial Slices of Brainstem

Averaged Across Populations

and Visits

Z= -12

Inferior

Z= -10

Z= -9

Z= -7

Z= -6

Superior

Z= -4






Intra class correlations
Intra-Class Correlations

Dependent

Variables

Dependent

Variables


Correlation between response to deviants and breath hold in stg controls
Correlation between Response to Deviants and Breath Hold in STG(Controls)

r= .322, p=.003


Correlation between response to deviants and breath hold in stg patients
Correlation between Response to Deviants and Breath Hold in STG(Patients)

r= .246, p= .02


Correlation between response to deviants and breath hold in mfg controls
Correlation between Response to Deviants and Breath Hold in MFG(Controls)

r= .114, p= ns


Correlation between response to deviants and breath hold in mfg patients
Correlation between Response to Deviants and Breath Hold in MFG(Patients)

r= -.041, p= ns






Cog wg

Cog WG

Auditory Oddball


Average STG Signal Change for Diagnostic Group

F = 9.2, p=.003

Control

N = 38

Patient

N = 39


Average STG Signal Change for Diagnostic Group by Visit

Visit 1

Visit 2

Visit 1

Visit 2

Control

N = 38

Patient

N = 39





Average Hemodynamic Time Series Across ROI

ACG

STG

Thalamus

Visit 1 = BlueVisit 2 = Red


dlPFC Activation by Auditory Deviants

Controls N=38

Patients N=39


dlPFC Activation by Auditory Deviants

Controls N=38

Patients N=39

Identical Threshold

Reduced Threshold


Cog wg1

Cog WG

Dual Sternberg MMN Tasks


Dual visual sternberg and auditory mismatch

******

******

18 sec

1

P

1

3

7

4

T

G

Z

R

9

7

5

A

S

V

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Dual Visual Sternberg and Auditory Mismatch

Rest

Set Size 2

Rest

Set Size 5

A G T Y H

* 1 * 7 *

Repeat

Fixation

Auditory tones: p(1000 Hz) = 0.9, p(1200 Hz) = 0.1

750 ms ISI, 100 ms duration

Visual stimuli: block lengths = 18 sec, ISI = 2000 ms

9 sec of fixation at beginning and end of run


Subjects
Subjects

  • Fifteen healthy subjects (9 females, 6 males; 13 right-handed, 2 left-handed)

  • Age range 18 to 28 years (mean age 21.9 years)

  • All had normal or corrected to normal visual acuity



Rest

Low Load

High Load

Activations to Deviant during load conditions (fixed effects)


High Load

Low Load

Voxels where Load 5 > Load 2, t>=2 (random effects)


Cog wg2

Cog WG

Emotional Oddball Task


...

...

...

...

...

Emotional Distracter Task

Yamasaki, LaBar, McCarthy, PNAS, 2002



Emotional distractor task middle frontal gyrus anterior
Emotional Distractor TaskMiddle Frontal Gyrus (anterior)



Emotional distracter task

Anterior MFG

Posterior IFG

Emotional Distracter Task



Sad movies

Happier

Happy movies

Neutral

- Mood +

Sadder

(min)

-4

-2

0

0

2

4

After the movies

Before the movies

Mood Measurement



Happy Mood

Sad Mood

0.25

*

Sad stimuli

Sad stimuli

Neutral stimuli

Neutral stimuli

Average of % signal change

0

20

20

-

-

4

4

-

-

2

2

0

0

2

2

4

4

6

6

8

8

10

10

12

12

14

14

16

16

18

18

20

20

-

-

4

4

-

-

2

2

0

0

2

2

4

4

6

6

8

8

10

10

12

12

14

14

16

16

18

18

Time course (s)

-

0.1

Activation of amygdala


Goals for cog challenge group
Goals for Cog Challenge Group

  • Evaluate Phase II SIRP design

    • Did the inclusion of three working memory loads differentiate schizophrenic and control samples?

  • Evaluate Phase II Auditory Oddball task

    • Did temporal lobe activation differentiate schizophrenic and control samples?

  • Cross-task comparisons for Phase II data

    • Were similar patterns of dorsolateral PFC activation observed in both SIRP and Oddball tasks?


Emotional Distracters and Working Memory

Phase II

Phase I

(14s)

(15s)

Novel stimuli (6s)

+

+

+

3.5s

1.5s

Memoranda

Probe


MFG

L

R

MR units

IFG

MR units

TR

Scrambled

Neutral

Emotional


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