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Transportation. Dr. F atma Ashour. Introduction. After the preliminary oil-field refining, the crude oil is transported to the refinery. The most common methods of transportation are “pipelines” and “tankers”. In very limited cases however, “trucks” or “rail-road wagons” may be used.

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Transportation

Transportation

Dr. Fatma Ashour


Introduction
Introduction

After the preliminary oil-field refining, the crude oil is transported to the refinery. The most common methods of transportation are “pipelines” and “tankers”. In very limited cases however, “trucks” or “rail-road wagons” may be used.


Storage tanks
Storage Tanks

  • These are placed at one of the following locations:

  • In case of transport bytankers, they are located next to the shore.

  • In case of transport by pipelines, the oil is transported from the storage tanks by a system of pumps to the refinery tanks.


Tankers
Tankers

  • These are usually constructed of several storage tanks in their lower part

  • Pumps and pipe connections are placed in between those individual tanks.

  • The chimney is always installed at the rear end of the tanker above the engine room, to avoid causing fire to the oil which might seep from the pipes (eg: due to a spark in the chimney).


  • The use of several tanks enables the tankers to carry different crude oils or a combination of petroleum products and crude oil. Furthermore, such construction (of several storage tanks) increases the stability of the tanker structure and allows more stability and easy balancing in case of partial unloading


Pipeline
Pipeline different crude oils or a combination of petroleum products and crude oil. Furthermore, such construction (of several storage tanks) increases the stability of the tanker structure and allows more stability and easy balancing in case of partial unloading


Design and construction of pipelines
Design and construction of pipelines different crude oils or a combination of petroleum products and crude oil. Furthermore, such construction (of several storage tanks) increases the stability of the tanker structure and allows more stability and easy balancing in case of partial unloading

Initial steps in the planning process include:

  • 1. Determining the market need

  • 2. Pipeline design

  • 3. Specification of pipe and components

  • 4. Route selection

  • 5. Environmental assessments

  • 6. Public consultation

  • 7. Land acquisition and permitting


Sumed pipeline
SUMED pipeline different crude oils or a combination of petroleum products and crude oil. Furthermore, such construction (of several storage tanks) increases the stability of the tanker structure and allows more stability and easy balancing in case of partial unloading

  • The SUMED pipeline ( Suez-Mediterranean pipeline) is an oil pipeline in Egypt, which runs from AinSukhna terminal on the Gulf of Suez to SidiKerir on the Mediterranean. It provides an alternative to the Suez Canal for transporting oil from the Persian Gulf region to the Mediterranean.


History
History different crude oils or a combination of petroleum products and crude oil. Furthermore, such construction (of several storage tanks) increases the stability of the tanker structure and allows more stability and easy balancing in case of partial unloading

The project of the oil pipeline from the Red Sea to Mediterranean Sea was started after the extended closure of the Suez Canal in June 1967. Establishment of the pipeline company was agreed in 1973 between five Arab countries. The SUMED pipeline was opened in 1977.


Technical description
Technical description different crude oils or a combination of petroleum products and crude oil. Furthermore, such construction (of several storage tanks) increases the stability of the tanker structure and allows more stability and easy balancing in case of partial unloading

  • The SUMED pipeline is 320 kilometres (200 mi) long. It consists of two parallel lines with the 42 inches (1,070 mm) diameter. The capacity of SUMED is around of 2.5 million barrels per day (400×10^3 m3/d).


Operator
Operator different crude oils or a combination of petroleum products and crude oil. Furthermore, such construction (of several storage tanks) increases the stability of the tanker structure and allows more stability and easy balancing in case of partial unloading

  • The pipeline is owned by the Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company/SUMED Company, a joint venture of

  • EGPC 50% , Egypt

  • Saudi Aramco 15%, Saudi Arabia

  • IPIC 15% , the United Arab Emirates,

  • Three Kuwaiti companies, each of 5%

  • QGPC 5%, Qatar


Proposed extension
Proposed extension different crude oils or a combination of petroleum products and crude oil. Furthermore, such construction (of several storage tanks) increases the stability of the tanker structure and allows more stability and easy balancing in case of partial unloading

  • The extension of the SUMED is being considered.

  • The proposed extension would traverse the Red Sea from AinSukhna to the Saudi coast near Sharm al Sheikh, and from there to the terminal of Saudi Arabia's main east-west pipeline in Yanbu.


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