Gene Technologies. Chapter 13. Changing Genes?. Some gene technologies involve changing the genes of an individual. We’re going to look at some of the science and consider some of the risks and benefits of these technologies. Harnessing Nature.
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Bacteria already do “gene therapy” on one another.
with DNA fragment
DNA fragment is
Viruses are expert at inserting their genes into living hosts.
2 Virus enters host cell.
3 Virus releases its DNA into host cell;
some viral DNA (red) may be incorporated
into the host cell’s DNA (blue).
1 Virus attaches to
susceptible host cell.
6 Host cell bursts,
releasing newly assembled viruses.
When “hybrid viruses” infect a
second cell, they may transfer
genes from the first cell to the
4 Viral genes encode synthesis
of viral proteins and viral gene
replication. Some host cell DNA
may attach to replicated viral
5 New viruses assemble;
host cell DNA is carried
by “hybrid viruses.”
“Gene gun” technology
DNA including Bt gene
Cut both with the same restriction enzyme.
Genes are prepared for insertion into a DNA plasmid from bacteria, which will be used to insert the gene into a plant cell.
Mix Bt gene and plasmid; add DNA ligase to seal DNA.
The enzyme ligase is used to seal the trans gene into the bacterial plasmid.
Transform Agrobacterium tumefaciens with recombinant
Plasmids are applied to a culture of bacteria that are known to infect plant cells.
Infect plant cell with transgenic bacterium.
The bacteria attacks a plant cell and attempts to insert its own DNA. It inserts the trans plasmid instead.
Insert Bt gene into plant chromosome.
If all goes well, the gene will be inserted into the plant’s DNA and will be expressed in the plant.
Transgenic plant cells are treated with hormones to grow new plants, and plants are tested for expression of the new gene.