Chapter 11
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Chapter 11. A. The vowel [ a ] became [æ] The word-final [ ə] was lost B. The final [ k ] was lost The [ s ] became [ š] C. the long vowel [ u: ] became [ aw ] D. The long vowel [ a: ] became [ 0 ] E. the long vowel [ æ ] : became [ I ]

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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

  • A. The vowel [a ] became [æ]

  • The word-final [ə] was lost

  • B. The final [ k ] was lost

  • The [ s] became [š]

  • C. the long vowel [ u:] became [ aw]

  • D. The long vowel [ a: ] became [ 0]

  • E. the long vowel [æ ] : became [ I]

  • F. the long vowel [ e: became [ i]


Chapter 111

Chapter 11

  • Great Vowel Shift.

    (a) Sample answers:

    [i]/[ε] [aj]/[I] [e]/[æ]

    i. clean/cleanse deride/derision vain/vanity

    ii. thief/ theft rhyme/rhythm sate/satisfy

    iii. feel/felt crime/criminal flame/flammable

    iv. keep/kept precise/precision nation/national

    v. please/pleasure line/linear page/paginate


Chapter 11

(b) The Modern English “sneezing sound” can be transcribed [aČu:].

Many [u:]s in Morden English derived from Middle English [o:]s,

for instance [gu:s] “goes” derived from [go:s]. The cartoon suggest humorously that perhaps [aČu:] derived from [aČo:] similarly.


Chapter 11

8.

  • Etymology詞源學


Chapter 11

  • size: From Old French assiser(“assize”), which has as one of its meanings “a statute for regulating weights and measures.”

  • royal: From Middle French from Latin regalis (“kingly”).

  • aquatic: From Middle French from Latin aqua (“water”) + -aticus.


Chapter 11

d. heavenly: From Old English heofenlic; akin to Old Norse himinn; Goth himins; German Himmel.

Old Norse: the North Germanic language of the Scandinavian peoples prior to about 1350

e. skill: From Old Norse skil (“distinction, difference”). f. ranch: From Spanish rancho (“camp”).

g. blouse: From French vetement de laine blouse (“garment of short wool”).


Chapter 11

h. robot: From Czech, coined by Karel Čapek in the play R.U.R. (1920) from the base robot-, as in robota (“compulsory labor”), robotnik (“peasant owing such labor”).

i. check: From Old French eschec, var. of eschac from Arabic shah (“check”) (in chess); from Persian: lit., king (an exclamation: i.e., “look out, your king is threatened.”)


Chapter 11

j. banana: From Portuguese (perhaps via Spanish); akin to various words for banana or plantain in West African languages (e.g. Wolof, Malinke banana Vai bana), but ultimate source and direction of borrowing uncertain.

k. keel: From Old English ceol, from Gothic kiel (“ship”). Goth/a/: a Germanic people that overran the Roman Empire in the early centuries of the Christian era


Chapter 11

l. fact: From Latin factum (“something done, deed”).

m. potato: From Spanish patata (“white potato”), var. for batata (“sweet potato”), from Taino.

n. muskrat: Alteration by folk etymology of musquash, Massachusett cognate of Western Abenaki moskwas.


Chapter 11

o. skunk: From the Massachusett reflex of Proto-Algonquian * šeka-kwa, deriv. of *šek- (“urinate”) + -a-kw (“fox”).

p. catfish: From English cat + fish (fish resembling a cat).

q. hoodlum: American English, probably from dialectal German; cf. Swabian derivatives of Hudel (“rag”), e.g. hudelum (“disorderly”), hudellam (“weak,”“slack,” etc.)


Chapter 11

r. filibuster: From Spanish filibustero from Middle French flibustier, var. of fribustier; see FREEBOOTER.

s. astronaut: From French astronautique ASTRO + -naute from Greek naútes (“sailor”), on the model of aéronaute (“aeronaut”).


Chapter 11

t. emerald: From Old French esmeraude, esmeralde, esmeragde, from Latin smaragdus, from Greek smaragdos; probably ultimately from Semitic b-r-q (“shine”) Sanskrit marak(a)la (“emerald”).

u. sugar: From Middle English and Middle French sucre, from Middle Latin succarum, Italian zucchero, Arabic sukkar; obscurely akin to Persian shakar, Greek sakcharon.


Chapter 11

v. pagoda: From Portuguese pagode (“temple”), from Persian butkada—but (“idol”) + kada (“temple, dwelling”).

w. khaki: From Urdu, from Persian khaki (“dusty”), equivalent to khak (“dust”) + i (suffix of appurtenance).

x. shampoo: Earlier champo (“to massage”), from an inflected from of Hindi (campna) (lit., “to press”).


Chapter 11

y. kangaroo: From Guugu Yimidhirr (Australian Aboriginal language spoken around Cooktown, N. Queensland), large black or gray species of kangaroo.

z. bulldoze: American English, origin uncertain; the notion that it represents a verbal use of bull dose, i.e., “a dose fit for a bull,” is probably specious.


11 proto polynesian

#11 proto-Polynesian

  • Correspondence sets

  • 1. p-p-p-b

  • 2 0-0-0-0

  • 3.u-u-u-u

  • 4.t-k-t-t-

  • 5.a-a-a-a

  • 6. –n-

  • 7.i-i-i-i-

  • 8.k-?-?-k

  • 9.e-e-e-e

  • 10.r-l-l-l


Chapter 11

  • 11.h-h-f-v

  • 12. n-n-n-n

  • 13.m-m-m-m

  • 14.h-h-s-s


Chapter 11

  • B. p-p-p-b p

  • o-o-o-o 0

  • u-u-u-u u

  • t-k-t-t t

  • a-a-a-a a

  • ……………..and so on.


Chapter 11

  • C. reconstructed words in Proto-Polynesian. These proto forms are the same as in Samoan.


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