Citris sponsored wave energy converter 2013
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CITRIS sponsored WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER 2013. UC Davis Mechanical Engineering. Alex Beckerman, Kevin Quach , Nick Raymond, Tom Rumble, Teresa Yeh. Contents. Introduction An overview of the CITRIS Renewable Energy Grant proposal, and project’s scope Preliminary Design and Research

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Citris sponsored wave energy converter 2013

CITRIS sponsoredWAVE ENERGY CONVERTER 2013

UC Davis Mechanical Engineering

Alex Beckerman, Kevin Quach, Nick Raymond,

Tom Rumble, Teresa Yeh


Contents
Contents

  • Introduction

    • An overview of the CITRIS Renewable Energy Grant proposal, and project’s scope

      Preliminary Design and Research

  • Technical Review

    • Terminology and main features of our WEC design.

    • Subsystems

    • Buoy

    • Spar

    • PTO

      • Hydraulics

      • Electronics

    • Heave Plate

  • Construction

    • A comparison of the two hydraulic motors regarding power performance, efficiency, and cost.

  • Next Stage

    • Testing in Bodega Bay

    • Instruction Manual



Introduction
introduction

  • CITRIS

  • 2012 CITRIS Sustainability Competition Winners

  • $10,000 Renewable Energy Research Grant

  • (+ $5,400 funding for testing)

  • Complete project within one year from award


Introduction1
introduction

Objectives

1. Design and fabricate a Wave Energy Converter (WEC)

2. Use standard parts and components to build the PTO

3. Create a set of instructions and share information over website



Preliminary design research
Preliminary design & Research

Potential Test Site: Bodega Bay, Ca

  • Exposed to Pacific ocean waves and wind swell

  • Local university facility to assist with deployment

  • Steep ocean floor topography (bathymerty)

  • Close proximity to UC Davis

  • Team has personal knowledge of area

Image: googlemaps.com


Preliminary design research1
Preliminary design & Research

Bodega Bay Marine Lab

Source: OceanGrafix.com

http://www.oceangrafix.com/chart/zoom?chart=18643


Preliminary design research2
Preliminary design & Research

Significant Wave Height 1981-2008

  • NOAA Buoy 46013

  • NOAA provides ocean data for last 28 years

  • Buoy anchored 14 miles off shore

  • Dominant wave period remains constant

  • Wave height expected to increase closer to shore

Dominant Wave Period 1981-2008

KEY


Preliminary design research3
Preliminary design & Research

Bond graph Modeling

  • Transfers system from mechanical translational domain to the electrical domain

  • Determines hydraulic damping coefficient for given electrical resistance

  • Damping coefficient used in state space dynamic modeling


Preliminary design research4
Preliminary design & Research

  • State Space Modeling

  • Model to represent the dynamics of our physical system in ocean

  • Linear wave model: approximation of ocean waves as sinusoids. [1]

  • Equations developed within state space using a free body diagram.

  • The system is modeled as a two body system with individual forces acting on each

  • body.

MatLab Simulation for Different Heave plate sizes used in Iteration Process

Free Body Diagram of Buoy- Heave Plate Dynamics


Preliminary design and research
Preliminary design and research

[ WEC_001]

[ WEC_002 ]

[ WEC_003 ]



Technical background1
Technical background

PTO

Buoy

Spar

47.3 ft

Have Plate

[ WEC_004 ]




buoy

  • Preliminary testing of foam

  • Fabricated one cubic foot mold out of plywood and wood screws

  • Filled mold with two part expanding polyurethane foam

Results From Initial Foam Test


Buoy

Lining the mold with plastic to assist with releasing the foam from the mold

Positioning the PVC pipes


Buoy

  • Marine grade polyurethane foam

  • Mixture come in two parts, expands when mixed

  • Final volume is 15 times the original volume after 20 minutes of curing


Buoy

Releasing the foam from the mold


Buoy

The foam was cut with a chainsaw to form the 45°chamfer


BUOY

The buoy was then sanded down and coated with a pigmented epoxy resin


Buoy

Steel plates mounted on the upper and lower surfaces of the buoy

All thread compresses the plates and secures buoy to the spar



spar

Hydraulic



spar

The bolt holes were drilled on the mill to assist in accurate alignment.

Welded components into framework


spar

Housing for springs and hydraulic shaft

Wire rope alignment housing


SPAR

Addition of strut members


SPAR

Strut members welded to the spar

Secured to the buoy bottom plate



Alignment brackets
Alignment brackets

5 spring alignment brackets to keep the 6 springs inline


Alignment brackets1
Alignment brackets

Bushing doubles as spring alignment and linear guide for hydraulic rod extension


Alignment brackets2
Alignment brackets

Cylinder alignment bracket


Sub systems power take off system

SUB-SYSTEMS(POWER TAKE OFF SYSTEM)


Power take off system
Power take-off system


Power take off system1
Power take-off system

  • Hydraulic Subsystem elements:

  • Hydraulic Ram

  • Bladder Type Accumulator

  • Piston Type Motor

  • Standard hydraulic hoses and fittings

  • System Operation:

  • Direct drive

  • Reverses direction with each stroke

  • Accumulator displaces cylinder rod volume


Power take off system2
Power take-off system

  • Hydraulic Motor Drain Port By-pass:

  • Check valves

  • Swagelok fittings

  • Hydraulic subsystem waterproof housing


Power take off system3
Power take-off system

Power take-off systems conveniently contained within water proof boxes


Power take off system4
Power take-off system

  • Boxes mount to frame

  • Frame mounts to top of buoy

  • Easy to access and maintain


Power take off system5
Power take-off system

  • Permanent Magnet DC Motor:

  • Operated mechanically to function as a generator

  • Microcontroller:

  • Logs system data from voltage and current sensors in 16 MB SD card


Power take off system6
Power take-off system

Waterproof microcontroller housing

Power dissipates in 1500 Watt

1 ohm resistor



Sub systems heave plate

SUB-SYSTEMS(HEAVE PLATE)



Heave plate1
Heave plate

Steel square tubing arranged into framework .

Test fitting before final welding of sheet steel

Supported from spar by connections of steel cables


Heave plate2
Heave plate

  • Sheet steel limits water flowing around steel frame

  • Hydrodynamic damping

  • “Added mass” effect

Sheet steel welded to frame using plug and bead welds


Heave plate3
Heave plate

Use of four individual modules advantageous for transportation and storage

Plug welds

Bead welds


Heave plate4
Heave plate

Steel cable, clips, and thimbles

Steel cable threads through eyelets welded on steel frame



Next stage testing

NEXT STAGE(TESTING)


Ocean testing
Ocean testing

Mooring site at depth of 100 feet


Ocean testing1
Ocean testing

Lifting with crane

  • Ring hoists mounted to bottom of buoy, and section of steel frame

  • Allows for lifting and transportation


Ocean testing2
Ocean testing

Ring Hoists

Ring hoist selected due to ability to lift angled loads

Capacity of 5,000 lbs each


Ocean testing3
Ocean testing

  • Transporting WEC

  • List with 1 Ton crane in EFL

  • Placed onto trailer provided by EFL

  • Tow trailer and WEC with a FORD F-550


Ocean testing4
Ocean testing

UC Davis Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory


Ocean testing5
Ocean testing

  • BML Crane

  • 3 Ton lifting capacity

  • 15 foot boom span

  • Drive trailer directly onto dock

  • BML Boat

  • Mussel Point Research Vessel

  • Boat: 42 foot long, with winch system

  • Specifically designed operate in demanding waters nearshore and offshore


Ocean testing6
Ocean testing

2,000 lbs Anchor

Plan A: train axel

(vendor not responding)

Plan B: purchase scrap steel

$0.15/lbs and cut and weld

Plan C: purchase scrap steel

$0.40/lbs and vendor will weld

  • Float Bag

  • Plastic bag filled with air

  • Provided by BML

  • Can float 3,000 lbs

  • Will float anchor behind boat

Image provided by BML:

Example of a Float Bag and 2,000 lbs Anchor


Data and results
Data and results

  • Collect data and analyze power output

  • Compile results

  • Create a manuscript and instruction manual

  • Upload the instruction manual onto team website

  • Upload informational videos to website (x5)

  • Submit final report to CITRIS

Team website

Project Wiki


References
References

  • A Review of Wave Energy Converter Technology. Drew, B, Plummer, AR and Sahinaya, MN. s.l.: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

  • Frequently Asked Questions. US Energy Information Administration. [Online] US Department of Energy, July 9, 2012. [Cited: November 20, http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=105&t=3.

  • Department, Minerals Management. Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S.Outer Continental Shelf. s.l. : U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006.

  • Hydraulics: 2X72X1.25 DA HYD CYL Item# 9-7707-72 . Surplus Center. [Online] 2010. [Cited: 02 18, 2013.] http://www.surpluscenter.com/item.asp?item=9-7707 72&catname=hydraulic.

  • McMaster- Carr Supply Company. Plastic Material Properties: More About Plastics. McMaster-Carr. [Online] 2012. http://www.mcmaster.com/#8574kac/=llhc8n.

  • McMaster-Carr Supply Company. More About Steel Alloys. McMaster-Carr. [Online] 2010. http://www.mcmaster.com/#88645kac/=llhola.

  • More About Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. [Online] 2010. [Cited: 04 22, 2013.] http://www.mcmaster.com/#8975kac/=llhszc.

  • NOAA. NOAA Marine Environmental Buoy Database. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. [Online] http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/BUOY/.

  • NOAA Ocean Facts. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. [Online] 2011 йил17- November. [Cited: 2012 йил 10-November.] http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/population.html.

  • Surplus Center. Hydraulics: 4X96X2.25 DA HYD CYL HEAVY DUTY CROSSTUBE. Surplus Center. [Online] 2012. [Cited: 02 12, 2013.]

  • Urethane Technologies Inc. Floating Devices Catalog. Denham Springs, Louisiana, USA : s.n.

  • US Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Outlook 2012- Renewable Energy Generating Capacity and Generation. Washington DC : US Department of Energy, 2012.

  • US Energy Information Administration. The Electric Power Monthly with Data for August 2012. Washington DC : US Department of Energy, 2012.

  • Willis, H. L., Welch, G. V., and Schrieber, R. R. Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc, 2001.


Thank you for the opportunity to present our project.We hope you found this information useful. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to ask.


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