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XI.21 Elements of a Science of the Life-World PowerPoint PPT Presentation

XI.21 Elements of a Science of the Life-World Philosophy 157 G. J. Mattey ©2002 Investigating the Life-World The pre-given world is the starting point for all science To investigate the objectivity of science, we must investigate the life-world

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XI.21 Elements of a Science of the Life-World

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Xi 21 elements of a science of the life world l.jpg

XI.21 Elements of a Science of the Life-World

Philosophy 157

G. J. Mattey

©2002


Investigating the life world l.jpg

Investigating the Life-World

  • The pre-given world is the starting point for all science

  • To investigate the objectivity of science, we must investigate the life-world

  • We must also investigate it as the center of our non-scientific lives

  • But this cannot be done “objectively”


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Science in General

  • Science in general includes “objective” science

  • It investigates the life-world and the way in which “objective” science is built on it

  • This has never been done before

  • It is also “objective,” though in a different way from the way of the “objective” sciences


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Objective Science and the Life-World

  • Science begins in and operates within the “life-world” common to all

  • The basic activities of science, observing, measuring, etc. take place in the life-world

  • The Greeks made the highest end of science the attainment of “objective truth”

  • Objective science is “the bold guiding idea of the modern period”

  • How is objective science related to the life-world?


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Knowledge in the Life-World

  • We have “occasional” knowledge which is useful for our ordinary practices

  • This involves “good” verification procedures such as excluding illusion and using induction

  • These are not to be understood in terms of “objective” psychology

  • They are not “immediate sense data”

  • They are subject-relative


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Scientific Knowledge

  • How can the subject-relative be used to ground the “objective?”

  • The theories of science are directed at “truth in itself”

  • There seems to be an essential conflict between the subject-relative and the truth in itself

  • Truth in itself is supposed to explain the subjective, but the subjective is supposed to explain it: a paradox


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Solving the Problem

  • This cannot be solved through argumentation in the manner of Kant, Hegel, Aristotle, Aquinas

  • We need to reflect our our practices, without prejudice

  • This will involve suspending judgment (epoché, ) in the truth or falsity of the “objective sciences”


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Science as a Vocation

  • The activities of the scientist are compared with those of the artist or soldier

  • The present investigation is also a vocation

  • This is not an intellectual game, as the “modern irrationalistic philosophers” would maintain

  • It may lead to a momentous intellectual transformation, like a religious conversion


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The Life-World

  • There is a “horizon” of possible experience of things: stones, plants, people, products

  • There is cross-cultural disagreement about much of this

  • But there are invariants: “spatial shape, motion, sense-quality,” on which “objective” science rests

  • The life-world has general structure that is not relative


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The Structure of the Life-World

  • There is a universal a priori of the life-world which is distinct from that of the “objective” science

  • Even pure logic depends on the universal, pre-logical a priori

  • The task here is to find “a pure theory of essence of the life-world”


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The Most General Structures

  • There are things distributed in the world-form of space and time

  • Things are given within a world-horizon

  • This difference suggests two ways of being conscious of the life-world


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Two Modes of Consciousness

  • The first is living toward the objects that are given, and this includes our goals

  • The second looks toward the manner in which these objects are given

  • Each lies within the world-horizon

  • The second is not noticed initially, but it is what makes us conscious of a universal horizon


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The Task Ahead

  • The subject manner of givenness brings about coherent consciousness

  • We investigate how this takes place

  • We also investigate how it can be the basis of objectivity

  • It is an historical investigation, but it is not undertaken “objectively”


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