Chapter 3    Biomolecules pages 53-73
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Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73. 99% of the mass of most cells is H, O, N, and C These are the smallest elements that can form 1,2,3 and 4 bonds. Required in grams/day Required in milligrams or less/day. Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components.

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Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73

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Voh chem ucla

Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73

99% of the mass of most cells is H, O, N, and C

These are the smallest elements that can form 1,2,3 and 4 bonds.

Required in grams/day

Required in milligrams

or less/day


Voh chem ucla

Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components


Voh chem ucla

Proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and

lipids are the most abundant biomolecules


Voh chem ucla

Biomolecules are compounds of carbon

Carbon atoms form 4 tetrahedral single bonds.

Two carbon atoms sharing a single bond can

rotate around the single bond.


Voh chem ucla

Two carbon atoms sharing a double bond

are closer and cannot rotate about the

double bond. The carbons and the

atoms bound to them form a plane.


Voh chem ucla

Biomolecules are often made of carbon

backbones with added functional groups,

referred to as “R” groups


Voh chem ucla

Examples of functional groups


Voh chem ucla

Functional groups can have chirality

The central carbon (a-carbon) is a chiral center


Voh chem ucla

Argininimide (colored) stereospecifically

fitting within an RNA a pocket (grey)


Voh chem ucla

Taste receptors can differentiate between

diastereoisomers


Voh chem ucla

  • Five main types of reactions in living cells

  • oxidation-reductions

  • cleavage and formation of C-C bond

  • internal rearrangements

  • group transfers

  • condensations- the joining of

  • monomers via the elimination of water


Voh chem ucla

Oxidation reactions generally release energy.

More

reduced

More

oxidized


Voh chem ucla

Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes in order to build biomolecules

(anabolism, requires energy) and to degrade biomolecules (catabolism, produces energy).

Figure 1-15 page 12


Voh chem ucla

ATP synthesis is the central goal of catabolism

Figure 1-10

Page 10

Terminal phosphoryl (shaded) can then be

hydrolyzed.


Voh chem ucla

ATP hydrolysis releases stored energy

Figure 14-1

page 500


Voh chem ucla

ATP hydrolysis can then be coupled with other

reactions to produce a favorable overall reaction .

Figure 1-9

Page 9


Voh chem ucla

Pairs of electrons and hydrogens are often

transferred in an oxidation-reduction


Voh chem ucla

Cleavage and formation of C-C bond occurs

via nucleophilic substitution reactions


Voh chem ucla

Internal rearrangements occur due to

sequential electron transfers


Voh chem ucla

Group transfers can activate intermediates


Voh chem ucla

Biopolymers are formed by condensations


Voh chem ucla

Amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars and lipids

are the basic building blocks of biomolecules


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