Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73. 99% of the mass of most cells is H, O, N, and C These are the smallest elements that can form 1,2,3 and 4 bonds. Required in grams/day Required in milligrams or less/day. Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components.
Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73
99% of the mass of most cells is H, O, N, and C
These are the smallest elements that can form 1,2,3 and 4 bonds.
Required in grams/day
Required in milligrams
Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components
Proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and
lipids are the most abundant biomolecules
Biomolecules are compounds of carbon
Carbon atoms form 4 tetrahedral single bonds.
Two carbon atoms sharing a single bond can
rotate around the single bond.
Two carbon atoms sharing a double bond
are closer and cannot rotate about the
double bond. The carbons and the
atoms bound to them form a plane.
Biomolecules are often made of carbon
backbones with added functional groups,
referred to as “R” groups
Examples of functional groups
Functional groups can have chirality
The central carbon (a-carbon) is a chiral center
Argininimide (colored) stereospecifically
fitting within an RNA a pocket (grey)
Taste receptors can differentiate between
Oxidation reactions generally release energy.
Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes in order to build biomolecules
(anabolism, requires energy) and to degrade biomolecules (catabolism, produces energy).
Figure 1-15 page 12
ATP synthesis is the central goal of catabolism
Terminal phosphoryl (shaded) can then be
ATP hydrolysis releases stored energy
ATP hydrolysis can then be coupled with other
reactions to produce a favorable overall reaction .
Pairs of electrons and hydrogens are often
transferred in an oxidation-reduction
Cleavage and formation of C-C bond occurs
via nucleophilic substitution reactions
Internal rearrangements occur due to
sequential electron transfers
Group transfers can activate intermediates
Biopolymers are formed by condensations
Amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars and lipids
are the basic building blocks of biomolecules