Chapter 3    Biomolecules pages 53-73
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Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73. 99% of the mass of most cells is H, O, N, and C These are the smallest elements that can form 1,2,3 and 4 bonds. Required in grams/day Required in milligrams or less/day. Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components.

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Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73

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Chapter 3 Biomolecules pages 53-73

99% of the mass of most cells is H, O, N, and C

These are the smallest elements that can form 1,2,3 and 4 bonds.

Required in grams/day

Required in milligrams

or less/day


Biomolecules are complex, but are made up of simpler components


Proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and

lipids are the most abundant biomolecules


Biomolecules are compounds of carbon

Carbon atoms form 4 tetrahedral single bonds.

Two carbon atoms sharing a single bond can

rotate around the single bond.


Two carbon atoms sharing a double bond

are closer and cannot rotate about the

double bond. The carbons and the

atoms bound to them form a plane.


Biomolecules are often made of carbon

backbones with added functional groups,

referred to as “R” groups


Examples of functional groups


Functional groups can have chirality

The central carbon (a-carbon) is a chiral center


Argininimide (colored) stereospecifically

fitting within an RNA a pocket (grey)


Taste receptors can differentiate between

diastereoisomers


  • Five main types of reactions in living cells

  • oxidation-reductions

  • cleavage and formation of C-C bond

  • internal rearrangements

  • group transfers

  • condensations- the joining of

  • monomers via the elimination of water


Oxidation reactions generally release energy.

More

reduced

More

oxidized


Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes in order to build biomolecules

(anabolism, requires energy) and to degrade biomolecules (catabolism, produces energy).

Figure 1-15 page 12


ATP synthesis is the central goal of catabolism

Figure 1-10

Page 10

Terminal phosphoryl (shaded) can then be

hydrolyzed.


ATP hydrolysis releases stored energy

Figure 14-1

page 500


ATP hydrolysis can then be coupled with other

reactions to produce a favorable overall reaction .

Figure 1-9

Page 9


Pairs of electrons and hydrogens are often

transferred in an oxidation-reduction


Cleavage and formation of C-C bond occurs

via nucleophilic substitution reactions


Internal rearrangements occur due to

sequential electron transfers


Group transfers can activate intermediates


Biopolymers are formed by condensations


Amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars and lipids

are the basic building blocks of biomolecules


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