Politics of india
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Politics of India. India. Republic of India. A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi. 2nd most populous nation. Population: over one billion Growing at 1.5% a year. Population in 2005. A nation of diversity: languages.

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Politics of India

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Politics of india

Politics of India


India

India


Republic of india

Republic of India

  • A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government

  • capital: New Delhi


2nd most populous nation

2nd most populous nation

  • Population: over one billion

  • Growing at 1.5% a year


Population in 2005

Population in 2005


A nation of diversity languages

A nation of diversity: languages

  • Constitution lists 14 official “principal languages”

  • English

  • Hindi (30%)


A nation of diversity religions

A nation of diversity: religions

  • Religions:

    • Hindu (~81%)

    • Muslim (~12%)

    • others (e.g. Buddhist 0.7%)

  • all major religions in the world are present

  • one of the major causes of conflict

  • religion can become a political vehicle for social movement


Brief history

Brief history

  • One of the world’s oldest civilizations

    • 5,000 years

  • foreign incursions

    • Aryans, Arabs, Turks, Portugal, France, and Britain

    • from 1,500 B.C. to 19th Century A.D.


190 years of british colonial rule

190 years of British colonial rule

  • Informal colonial rule through the British East India Company (1750s-1850s)

  • formal colonial rule after the Mutiny rebellion of 1857


Struggle for independence

Struggle for independence

  • Indian National Congress was formed in 1885

  • non-violent resistance to colonial rule

  • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)

    • transformed INC

    • unity within diversity

    • non-cooperation movement

  • Nehru (1889-1964)


Independence partition

Independence & partition

  • Division of the subcontinent (1947)

    • India

    • Pakistan


Republic of india1

Republic of India

  • Prime Minister Nehru (1947-1964)

  • His daughter (Indira Gandhi) as Prime Minister (1966-1977, 1980-1984)


Nehru s legacies

Nehru’s legacies

  • His grandson

    • Rajiv Gandhi

    • Prime Minister (1984-1989)

  • His granddaughter-in-law

    • Sonja Gandhi

    • Congress party president (1999 - )


World s largest democracy

World’s largest democracy

  • Resilient democratic institutions, processes, and legitimacy

    • except 1975-1977

    • Indira Gandhi declared national emergency

  • politics in India is characterized by

    • governments of precarious coalitions

    • weakened political institutions

    • political activism along ethnic lines


Turnout in general elections

Turnout % in General Elections


A federal system

A federal system

  • 28 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories

    • 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China


Federal system

Federal system

  • Relatively centralized

  • federal government controls the most essential government functions

    • defense

    • foreign policy

    • taxation

    • public expenditures

    • economic (industrial) planning


The legislature

The legislature

  • Parliamentary system of government

    • the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament


The legislature1

The legislature

  • bicameral Parliament

    • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)

    • Lok Sabha (House of the People)


Elections to lok sabha

Elections to Lok Sabha

  • Vote share of 3 major political parties


Prime minister

Prime Minister

  • Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister

  • prime minister nominates a cabinet

    • members of Parliament in the ruling coalition

    • Council of Ministers

  • effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister

    • where most of the important policies originate


Prime ministers of india

Prime Ministers of India

  • 38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family

  • more and more rapid turnover


Economic development

Economic development

  • Under Prime Minister Nehru’s rule

    • private property and government guidance

    • powerful planning commission

    • government rules and regulations

      • opportunities and incentives for corruption

    • self-sufficiency

      • domestic sector was protected from foreign competition

      • protected industries became inefficient


Economic development1

Economic development

  • The “green revolution” in agriculture

    • new agricultural strategy in late 1960s

    • seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation

    • India became self-sufficient in food


Economic development2

Economic development

  • state-led economic development

    • government-planned private economy

    • substantial industrial base


Economic liberalization

Economic liberalization

  • Dissatisfaction with the relatively slow economic growth

    • dismantle controls over private sector

    • further integrate into global economy

  • Financial crisis in early 1990s

    • emergency funds from IMF & World Bank

    • conditional on economic liberalization

      • reduce government budget deficit

      • selling government shares in public enterprises


Foreign direct investment

Foreign direct investment


Economic liberalization1

Economic liberalization

  • Economic performance

    • average growth rate of 6% since 1990

    • reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points

    • purchasing power parity GDP: $3 trillion


Economic liberalization2

Economic liberalization

  • India has large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language

    • India is a major exporter of software services and software workers


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