New Testament Canon

New Testament Canon PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Old Testament was the Scriptureof the Early Church. 3 who saw Transfiguration. 12 disciples. The 70. 1Co 15:6 Then he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. . >500. and all these otherswhowitnessedJesus on the Roadandthe Risen Lord.

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New Testament Canon

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22. Collecting the books

26. ca. 51-100 AD: The New Testament books are written. But during this same period other early Christian writings are produced: The Didache (ca. 70) 1 Clement (ca. 96) The Epistle of Barnabas (ca. 100) 7 Letters of Ignatius of Antioch (ca. 110) The Shepherd of Hermas (ca. 100) If you want to read them:

27. Development of the New Testament Canon

28. Development of the New Testament Canon

32. ca. 140AD: He was a businessman in Rome.

33. ca. 140AD: There are two Gods: Yahweh, the cruel God of the Old Testament Abba, the kind father of the New Testament

41. But the periphery of the canon is not yet determined. According to one list, compiled at Rome around 200 (often called the Muratorian Canon), the NT consists of: The 4 Gospels (though first 2 are missing) Acts 13 letters of Paul (Hebrews is not included) 1-2 John Jude The Apocalypse of Peter. But not Hebrews, James, 3 John, 1 & 2 Peter, or Revelation


48. Recognized: The four Gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, 1 John, 1 Peter and “if it really seems right,” Revelation

49. Disputed: James, Jude, 2 Peter and 2 & 3 John

50. Spurious: Acts of Paul, Shepherd of Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Letter of Barnabas, the Didache, the Gospel of the Hebrews and, “if it seems right,” Revelation

51. Heretical: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, etc., Acts of Andrew, John or other apostles


60. Non-canonical Christian Writings “Apocryphal” works – not accepted into NT Canon Why not? – written later; different theology; used by heretical groups? More “Gospels”: Gospels of Thomas, Peter, Judas, etc. More “Acts”: Acts of Paul, of Peter, of Thomas, etc. More “Apocalypses”: Apoc. of John, of Peter, etc.

61. Non-canonical Christian Writings “Patristic” works – also not in NT, but different reasons Why not? – not “apostolic” (i.e., written later, but theology acceptable) More “Letters/Epistles”: by Barnabas, Clement, Ignatius of Antioch, etc. More “Homilies/Sermons”: by later bishops & teachers Other Genres: Biblical commentaries; theological treatises; etc. 4th & 5th Cent. “Creeds”: summary statements of Christian beliefs

62. 1536: Martin Luther translates the Bible from Hebrew and Greek to German. He assumes that, since Jews wrote the Old Testament, theirs is the correct canon. He puts the extra 7 books in an appendix that he calls the "Apocrypha." This is the Old Testament that most Protestants use (Anglicans also use the Apocrypha devotionally).

65. The Reliablity of Transmission

66. Is the Bible reliable in transmission?

80. Some Terms

82. Ancient Writing Materials Papyrus (reed plant) Cut in strips, flattened Less expensive, durable

83. P52 - Oldest NT fragment Ca. 125 – 150 C.E. (now in John Rylands Library, Manchester) front: John 18:31-33 back: John 18:37-38

84. P46 Oldest manuscript of the Pauline letters. Originally part of the Chester Beatty Papyri Written ca. AD 200 Total of 104 pages, but several are now missing Included at least ten of the Pauline letters This image shows the text of 2 Cor 11:33–12:9

85. Ancient Writing Materials Vellum / Parchment Animal skins, prepared More expensive, durable

86. Ancient Writing Format Scroll Rolled, sealed on outside Written on one side only Papyrus or Vellum Codex Sheets stacked, bound Written on both sides Papyrus or Vellum

93. Pre-Constantine Era (1st – 3rd Cent.) Christians were poor, persecuted, minority NT texts: only few papyrus scraps survive

94. Biblical Texts Emperor Constantine Edict of Milan (312 C.E.) Imperial support of Christianity Construction of Churches Full Bible Codices on Vellum some survive from 4th / 5th Cent.: Codex Sinaiticus Codex Vaticanus Codex Alexandrinus, etc.

112. Historical Translations

113. KJV translation 1607 King James commissioned a group to translate the Bible. Enlisted the best men to work with only the Hebrew and the Greek text Men were divided into 6 groups to do the translating 3 groups worked on the Old Testament 2 groups worked on the New Testament 1 group worked on the Apocrypha (later dropped) When these 12 men finished, another group of men reviewed their work This group added works to make the text flow better in English, these are the Italicized words in your Bible. The work of the first two groups took 2 years to complete. The new translation was then submitted to another group for review. The work was finished by this group in nine months. The work employed over 54 translators The Authorized Version then published in 1611. Authorized by King James, not written by him. This work was a literal translation, word for word. More then 5,000 manuscripts were reviewed to complete this work.

117. Modern Translations Amplified New Testament Amplified Old Testament Twentieth Century New Testament Weymouth’s New Testament Fenton’s Bible Moffat’s Translation Montgomery Centenary New Testament in Basic English Berkeley Version Norlie’s New Testament New English Bible Amplified Bible Living Bible New Living Translation New International version Good News Bible Revised Standard Version

119. Word For Word Translations Interlinear Bible English Standard Version New American Standard Bible Amplified Bible King James Version New King James Version New American Bible

120. Thought for Thought Translations New International Version New Living Translation New revised standard version Holman Christian Standard Bible The Message Bible Contemporary English Version Good News Translation Today’s New International Version

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