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A CHALLENGE FOR SUSTAINABLE, CLEAN ENERGY C.Borcea. NEUTRON DATA. OUTLOOK. INTRODUCTION NEUTRON DATA (ND): WHY AND HOW ND AT IRMM NP CONCLUSION. INTRODUCTION. RECENT HOT LINES IN THE NEWS: -CHERNOBYL -PRICE OF CRUDE IMPLICATIONS: MAKE NUCLEAR ENERGY SAFE AND CLEAN BY

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A challenge for sustainable clean energy c borcea l.jpg

A CHALLENGE FOR SUSTAINABLE, CLEAN ENERGY

C.Borcea

NEUTRON DATA

Info Day Bucharest


Outlook l.jpg
OUTLOOK

  • INTRODUCTION

  • NEUTRON DATA (ND): WHY AND HOW

  • ND AT IRMM NP

  • CONCLUSION

Info Day Bucharest


Introduction l.jpg
INTRODUCTION

RECENT HOT LINES IN THE NEWS:

-CHERNOBYL

-PRICE OF CRUDE

IMPLICATIONS:

MAKE NUCLEAR ENERGY SAFE AND CLEAN BY

-NEW GENERATION OF REACTORS

-WASTE PROCESSING

Info Day Bucharest


Neutron data what is that l.jpg
NEUTRON DATA: WHAT IS THAT?

DATA CONCERNING THE CROSS SECTIONS OF NEUTRON INDUCED REACTIONS ON VARIOUS MATERIALS

The neutron can:

-scatter elastically

-scatter in-elastically (followed by  emission)

-be captured (followed by gamma end/or particle

emission)

-induce fission

-induce a (n,xn) or a (n,cp) reaction

Info Day Bucharest


Slide5 l.jpg

standards

systematics

level densities

spins, parities

theory

Temperature

effects

shielding

Neutron

data

waste

sustainability

safety

Safety

margins

Higher burn-up

ADS , HTR

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Neutron data what for l.jpg
NEUTRON DATA: WHAT FOR?

  • REACTORS OF A NEW GENERATION AND/OR ADS

  • RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING

  • FUSION REACTORS (ITER)

  • SAFETY AND SAFEGUARDS

  • MEDICINE, FORENSICS

  • ELEMENT TRACING, etc.

Info Day Bucharest


Nuclear energy key issues l.jpg
NUCLEAR ENERGY KEY ISSUES

  • SAFETY (keff)

  • SUSTAINABLE (BU, CLOSED CYCLE)

  • WASTE (P&T)

  • NONPROLIFERATION

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New generation reactors how l.jpg
NEW GENERATION REACTORS: HOW?

DESIGN OF INOVATIVE NEW REACTOR TYPES IS DONE ESSENTIALLY BY USING:

-PERFORMANT, STATE OF THE ART CODES FOR MONTE CARLO SIMULATION and

-RELIABLE CROSS SECTION LIBRARIES WITH INFO CONCERNING THE DATA PRECISSION

-BENCHMARKING

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WASTE PROCESSING: P&T

  • Radiotoxicity of Nuclear Waste:

  • production of Pu and "minor actinides" (Np, Am,...) by "breeding" (combination of neutron capture and beta decay)

  • production of long-lived radioactive fission products

Partitioning:

separate and recycle U, Pu

Transmutation:

"burn" minor actinides (by neutron-induced fission),

"transform" long-lived fission products into short-lived or stable isotopes (by neutron capture)

requires fast neutrons

Info Day Bucharest


Libraries what is the present status l.jpg
LIBRARIES: WHAT IS THE PRESENT STATUS?

  • MANY LIBRARIES, GENERALLY CONCORDANT BUT:

  • ZONES WHERE DATA ARE ABSENT OR LARGE (20% or more) UNCERTAINTIES (especially for structural materials but also for MA)

  • REGIONS WHERE DATA ARE DISCREPANT

  • CROSS SECTIONS EXIST BUT DATA PRECISSION AND CROSS INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FACTORS (SO CALLED COVARANCE MARIX) INSUFFICIENTLY KNOWN OR NOT KNOWN AT ALL

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ILLUSTRATION

Example 1: large uncertainties in data files due to lack of experimental data

extrapolations based on previous knowledge

IRMM

previous knowledge

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120

Paul (1953)

Cross (1963)

Preiss (1960)

Qaim (1977)

Bahal (1984)

Qaim (1984)

Viennot

Ribansky (1985)

80

Viennot (1991)

Molla (1991)

Osman (1996)

cross section (mb)

Val'ter (1962)

Levkovskiy (1969)

IRMM

40

61

Co: N=24/2.499 MeV; 6.48/-.89: D

=1.50 keV

0

N=11/1.682 MeV; 6.85/-.87: 0.95

N=24/2.499 MeV ; 6.85/-.75: 1.04

TALYS_0.49

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

neutron energy (MeV)

ILLUSTRATION

Example 2: large uncertainties in data files due to

inaccurate experimental data

61Ni(n,p)61Co

predictions from model codes

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Neutron data how l.jpg
NEUTRON DATA: HOW?

  • A NEUTRON SOURCE IS MANDATORY

  • THERE IS NOT AN ALL PURPOSE NEUTRON SOURCE

  • SUCH FACILITIES ARE HIGH-TECH INSTALLATIONS USSUALLY WITH TRANS-NATIONAL ACCESS

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ILUSTRATION: NEURON FACILITIES IN THE WORLD

  • LOS ALAMOS

  • OAK RIDGE

  • JAPAN

  • RUSSIA

  • n_TOF (CERN)

  • GELINA (IRMM)

  • VdG accelerators (France, Germany, Belgium, etc.)

  • HIGH-FLUX REACTORS

  • FUTURE: SPIRAL2?

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NEUTRON DATA: FOCUS ON GELINA

  • IRMM: A TRADITION IN QUALITY NUCLEAR DATA

  • FACILITY, CHARACTERISTICS

  • CAPTURE CROSS SECTIONS

  • TRANSMISSION CROSS SECTIONS

  • FISSION CROSS SECTIONS

  • INELASTIC AND (n,2n) CROSS SECTIONS

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Reference laboratory for neutron physics l.jpg
Reference Laboratory for Neutron Physics

  • Provide European safety authorities and industry with neutron data needed for:

  • the feasibility study of waste transmutation facilities and advanced systems

  • the safety assessment of nuclear installations and the nuclear fuel cycle

7 MV VdG

150 MeV

Electron Linac

High-resolution neutron

cross-section data

measurements

  • Facilities: GELINA and VdG

  • exclusively used for neutron production

  • Info Day Bucharest


    Slide17 l.jpg

    Geel Electron Linear Accelerator GELINA:

    Continuous energy spectrum,

    Time-of-flight measurements

    n

    L

    e-

    150 MeV

    U

    Info Day Bucharest


    Gelina a powerful neutron source l.jpg
    GELINA: a powerful neutron source

    High-energy electron accelerator

    Electron-neutron conversion target

    • 150 MeV electron accelerator (10 ns, 10 A)

    • pulse compression to 1 ns and 100 A

    • 800 bursts / s

    • uranium target - mercury cooled

    • 4 1010 neutrons / burst

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide19 l.jpg

    CERN TOF Facility

    spallation neutron source

    24 GeV protons, 3·1013 p/pulse

    Δt ~10 ns, frequency ~0.4 Hz

    Pb target: 40 cm x 40 cm diam. + water moderator

    Neutron production rate:

    ~ 2·1016 n/pulse

    ~ 1016 n/s ~forward directed

    fixed flight path L: 200 m

    ~7·106 n/cm2 per pulse (2.4 s)

    single user facility, En < 109 eV

    very high n flux per pulse

    radioactive targets, rare isotopes

    GELINA

    electrons  bremsstrahlung  neutrons

    0.15 GeV electrons, 7.5·1011 e- /pulseΔt = 1 ns, frequency : 800 Hz

    U target: torus, 3 cm x 30 cm outer diam. ( + water moderator )

    Neutron production rate:

    ~ 4·1010 n/pulse

    ~ 3·1013 n/s ~isotropic

    several stations with L ~ 10 m - 400 m

    ~3·103 - 2 n/cm2 per pulse (1.2 ms)

    multi-user facility, En < 10 MeV

    very high energy resolution,

    flux ~ 1/3 of TOF in resonance region

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide20 l.jpg

    d

    Ti/T

    n

    Van de Graaff accelerator

    monochromatic neutrons via nuclear reactions

    e.g.:

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide21 l.jpg

    radiotoxic inventory

    Typical radiotoxic inventory as a function of time

    in Sv per metric ton of heavy metal

    fission

    products

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide22 l.jpg

    radiotoxic inventory

    contribution from long-lived fission products

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide23 l.jpg

    Nuclear Waste Transmutation

    Example: long-lived fission product 129I via neutron capture:

    129I (1.6 107 a) + n 130I (12.4 h) 130Xe (stable)

    feasibility studies:

    capture and transmission experiments

    at GELINA (collab. with CEA)

    + n

    129I

     -

    130I

    1.6 107 a

    12.4 h

    130Xe

    stable

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide24 l.jpg

    High Resolution Measurements on 99 Tc at GELINA

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide25 l.jpg

    206Pb(n,g): res. shape analysis

    Experiments at GELINA

    304 resonances observed (221 in evaluated files)

    E0, g up to 620 keV(before up to 200 keV ); gn up to 80 keV

    A. Borella,

    P. Schillebeeckx

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide26 l.jpg

    Inelastic scattering

    mechanism by which fast neutrons lose energy

    energy spectrum in accelerator driven systems (ADS)

    structural materials (Al,Fe) : criticality

    coolant materials (Na,Pb) : coolant void effect

    Info Day Bucharest


    Slide27 l.jpg

    27Al Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    Eg=1.0145 MeV

    Eg=0.8438 MeV

    Info Day Bucharest


    58 ni inelastic cross section l.jpg
    58Ni, Inelastic cross section

    L. Olah, DNE, HU

    C. Borcea, SV, RO

    L.C. Mihailescu, GH,RO

    IReS Strasbourg

    U. and TU Vienna

    U. Belgrade

    nTOF collaboration

    Info Day Bucharest


    207 pb n n g and n 2n g measurements l.jpg
    207Pb(n,n’g) and (n,2ng) measurements

    Mihailescu et al.

    Rudolf et al.

    200 m FP, Gelina

    fast flux

    8 ns FWHM TOF-resol.

    4 HPGE (3x 95%, 1x 80 %)

    Continuous energy up to 20 MeV

    High resolution at low energy

    Info Day Bucharest


    207 pb n n g l.jpg
    207Pb(n,n’g)

    Info Day Bucharest


    209 bi n n g deduced total inelastic l.jpg
    209Bi(n,n’g), Deduced total inelastic

    Info Day Bucharest


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    ROMANIA AND IRMM-NP UNIT

    • VISITING SCIENTISTS (2 SENIOR RESEARCHERS FROM NIPNE-BUCHAREST AND 2 PROFESSORS FROM BUCHAREST UNIVERSITY)

    • DNE (2 SENIOR RESEARCHERS FROM NIPNE-BUCHAREST)

    • ONE PHD THESIS DONE IN IRMM (GRANT HOLDER)

    • 4 POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWS (NIPNE-BUCHAREST)

    • NEURON MEASUREMENTS, EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS: NEMEA-2 WORKSHOP ORGANIZED BY IRMM AND NIPNE AT BUCHAREST (2004)

    Info Day Bucharest


    Conclusion l.jpg
    CONCLUSION

    • HIGH QUALITY NEUTRON DATA ARE NECESSARY

    • COMPLEMENTARITY AND COOPERATION

    • MEASUREMENT-EVALUATION CYCLE

    • ATRACT NEW INSTITUTIONS/PEOPLE

    • COMMUNICATE!

    Info Day Bucharest


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