General Biology of Mosquitoes. Insects that belong to Order DIPTERA which includes all the flies.Have four life stages:Egg -- laid on surface or edge of water.Larvae -- live only in water.Pupae -- live only in water.Adults. Eggs. Laid on singly on surface or edge of water.Some species lay eggs in rafts on surface of water.Some sp. hatch 24-36 hrs.Some hatch after one, two or three years. Over wintering stage for some species.
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1. Mosquitoes in Oklahoma Dr. Russell Wright, Prof. Emeritus
2. General Biology of Mosquitoes Insects that belong to Order DIPTERA which includes all the flies.
Have four life stages:
Egg -- laid on surface or edge of water.
Larvae -- live only in water.
Pupae -- live only in water.
3. Eggs Laid on singly on surface or edge of water.
Some species lay eggs in rafts on surface of water.
Some sp. hatch 24-36 hrs.
Some hatch after one, two or three years.
Over wintering stage for some species
4. Larvae Four stages: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th instars.
Called “wrigglers”, very active, come to surface for air.
Total length 6-12 days. Some species even weeks.
5. Pupae Stage that changes from larvae to adult.
Called “tumblers” very active, come to surface for air.
Stage lasts from 3-6 days.
6. Adult (Male) Emerges first
Feeds on nectar sources for energy.
Mates within 3 to 7 days and dies
7. Adult (Females) Emerges and feeds on nectar.
Mates, usually only once.
Searches for blood meal.
Needs blood meal to develop eggs.
1-5 blood meals over life of 7 to 28 days.
8. Mosquito Life Cycle
9. Mosquito Species Present in Oklahoma: Approximately 60 known species in Oklahoma. Over 230 species in U.S.
Usually only 6-8 species will be a nuisance pest in any given area.
10. Genus and species Every species is more different from each other genetically than you and I are from any other human on earth.
So I will need to use at least Genus names, sometimes species as I refer to biology.
Think of these names as the folks you know as Jane, Linda, Ann , Tom. Dick, Harry etc.
However if you think of any of your friends by these names, don’t tell them I told you to do so.
11. Classification Based on Larval Habitat Flood Water Mosquitoes
Permanent Water Mosquitoes
Permanent Pool Group
Transient Water Group
12. Larval Habitat Important to know which mosquitoes cause problems and when.
Identify larval habitats based on adults present.
Most effective to find and map larval habitats and eliminate or treat in this stage.
13. Flood Water Mosquitoes Mosquitoes in Genera Aedes, Ochlerotatus, and Psorophora
Some species from these three genera are the most important pest species.
Bite humans, livestock, pets. And can have very large populations in spring and early summer.
Do not believe that most vector WNV
14. Eggs are laid on the soil surface at the edge of standing pools of water that are left from heavy rains or floods.
Often woodland pools; roadside ditches or low areas along creeks rivers that collect flood water.
Eggs hatch when flooded by run off from heavy rains or flood water. Flood Water Mosquitoes (cont.)
15. Eggs are over wintering stage. In most cases must spend winter in egg case, called diapause stage.
Can survive in egg stage for several years until flooded.
However, can have different hatches within several days if increased water levels hatch new eggs. Flood Water Mosquitoes (cont.)
16. Adult populations peak in late April, May, and June, some species hatch with late summer fall rains .
Adults die quickly during hot weather.
Any flooded pools usually dry up too fast to support larvae in hot weather.
Females most active around sunset or in shady areas when disturbed. Flood Water Mosquitoes (cont.)
17. Floodwater Pool – Aedes vexans
18. Floodwater Pool – Aedes vexans
19. Permanent Water Mosquitoes Permanent Pool Group Genera Anopheles, Coquillettida, Mansonia some Culex sp.
Found in quiet bodies of freshwater with sunlight, much surface vegetation and very little wave action.
Shallow edges of ponds, some lakes backwaters of rivers even slow moving streams.
Never in main lake or pond areas with much wave action.
20. Anopheles lay eggs singly on surface of water, each egg with a float.
Eggs hatch in 24-36 hrs. Many generations a year tend to peak mid late summer
Adults over winter triggered by photoperiod.
Deep south perhaps cycle can go all year, slower in winter. Permanent Pool Group (cont.)
21. Genera Coquillettidia and Mansonia
Mansonia mosquitoes lay eggs in groups attached to plant stems underwater; Coquillettidia in rafts on water surface.
Larvae insert breathing siphon into plant and takes oxygen directly from plant tissues. Cattail marshes and similar type water.
Appear to have one prolonged generation per year and at least in south over winter in larval stage.
Not much of a nuisance pest. Permanent Pool Group (cont.)
22. Permanent Water Mosquitoes Transient Water Group Genera Culex and Culiseta
Canals, long standing ground pools or roadside ditches, catch basins, storm sewers , clogged sewers long standing irrigation pools, water often becomes very foul polluted for some species others need fairly clean water.
These mosquitoes lay eggs in rafts on the surface of the water.
Eggs hatch within 24-36 hours.
23. Transient Water Group (cont.) These mosquitoes normally over winter in the adult stage.
Adults emerging in late summer or fall do not search for a blood meal, but mate and female searches for sheltered areas to spend winter.
Caves, burrows, sewers, basements etc.
Populations low in spring peak in mid to late summer. Vary some with species.
24. Culex spp. Laying Eggs
25. Populations of these mosquitoes low in spring.
Takes awhile to build large populations.
Peak abundance July-October.
Many species prefer birds as hosts.
Are often best vectors of viruses.
Bite more readily at night. Transient Water Group (cont.)
26. Transient Water Mosquito Habitat
27. Container Mosquitoes Certain species in 5-6 Genera
In nature larvae live in tree holes, rock pools even leaf axils.
Many species now associated with man made containers or materials that hold water.
Tires, cans, buckets , birdbaths, gutters, pet water dishes, plant container bottoms that catch water, even cans, paper cups etc.
28. Typical Container Mosquito Habitat
29. Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus
Larvae in containers of any size.
30. Aedes albopictus Eggs in Container Efficient container breeder utilizing available sources.
Eggs laid on surface of water, on sides of container, and on stick.
Immediate egg hatch of some eggs, delayed hatch for others.
31. Asian Tiger Mosquito First found in OK 1990-91, Tulsa, SE Counties.
By 2000 was found in all counties we surveyed.
Most important pest in most areas.
Bites in mid to late afternoon.
Abundant from mid June through Sept.
32. Distribution of Asian Tiger Mosquito in Oklahoma
33. Mosquito Species of Greatest Concern Belong to Genus Culex
Include C. pipiens/quinquefasciatus, southern house mosquito most likely vector
C. restuans, C. salinarius, C. tarsalis.
Note: all are permanent water mosquitoes, populations peak in summer through fall at same time virus activity peaks
All prefer to feed on birds.
34. Possible WNV Vector Species in Oklahoma Bridge vectors to humans & horses.
Culex tarsalis – Cx. salinarius Permanent transient water but not very stagnant
Aedes vexans –floodwater; spring through mid summer
Ochlerotatus triseriatus. Oc. hendersoni
Container or tree hole species
35. Surveillance Knowledge of the mosquito species in a given area and relative abundance is necessary in planning control measures.
Some species do not vector WNV, control not as important.
Accurate records must be kept of surveillance locations.
Species I.D. is essential.
36. Larviciding Controlling mosquito larvae most effective control measure because life stage is confined to aquatic habitat.
Water management by drainage or source reduction.
Larvicides can be used if drainage not available or adequate.
Not as practical in Oklahoma until we have identified larval sites.