Introduction to computing
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Introduction to Computing When do you use a computer? Word Processing Web Surfing Instant Messaging/Email Music downloads/Games Air traffic control Car diagnostics Climate control Why do you use a computer? Word Processing Improved communication Web Surfing Knowledge acquisition

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When do you use a computer l.jpg
When do you use a computer?

  • Word Processing

  • Web Surfing

  • Instant Messaging/Email

  • Music downloads/Games

  • Air traffic control

  • Car diagnostics

  • Climate control


Why do you use a computer l.jpg
Why do you use a computer?

  • Word Processing

    • Improved communication

  • Web Surfing

    • Knowledge acquisition

  • Instant Messaging/Email

    • Community

  • Music downloads/Games

    • Entertainment


What do you need in a computer l.jpg
What do you need in a computer?

  • Word Processing

    • WYSIWYG

    • Attached to printer/Email

  • Web Surfing

    • Network connection

  • Instant Messaging/Email

    • Network connection

  • Music downloads/Games

    • Network connection

    • Disk space

    • CD/ROM ?RW


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When do you use a computer?

  • Air traffic control

  • Car diagnostics

  • Climate control


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What is a computer?

  • Processor brains

  • Memory scratch paper

  • Disk long term memory

  • I/O communication (senses)

  • Software reconfigurability


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What makes a computer special?

  • Most complex object made by humans

  • Communication mechanism

  • Reconfigurability

  • Moore’s Law


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The pieces

  • How are computers built?

  • How are computers programmed?

  • How are computers networked?


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Buying a machine

  • An ad for a computer


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What’s in a Machine

  • Processor (Pentium III 850 MHz)

  • RAM (128 MB of SDRAM expand to 512 MB)

  • Disk (20 GB)

  • CD ROM/ CD RW/DVD/…

  • 15" XGA TFT Display (1024x768 res.)

  • 3.5" 1.44MB Floppy Disk Drive

  • S3 Savage IX 128-bit AGP 2x graphics

    • 8MB memory, 3D Hardware acceleration, composite TV-Out support, …

  • 16-bit Soundblaster Compatible Sound


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What’s in a Machine (cont)

  • 2 Type-I or Type-II slots or 1 Type-III slot

  • 2 USB Ports

  • Built-in 56Kbps V.90 Data/fax modem

  • Built-in 10/100 Ethernet Adapter

  • Also

    • universal AC adapter,

    • built-in Lithium-Ion battery,

    • Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition,

    • Encarta World Encyclopedia online version…


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The machine

Power

Disk

RAM

Core Machine

Communications

I/O

Text

Sound

Ports

Software


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Building an application

  • Word (is a part of the Office application)

  • Runs on Windows (an operating system)

  • Runs on Pentium (a computer)

  • Enhanced by connections to monitor, printer, network

  • Uses random access memory (RAM) to work on document, disk (non-volatile) memory to store in

  • Need a CD-ROM to install application


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More for Less --Moore’s Law

  • 1981 when I came to Princeton

    • CS department machine

      • $150,000 (now < $1,000)

      • 700 Khz chip (now 1 GHz)

      • 1 MB memory (now 128MB)

      • 80 MB disk (now 40 GB)

      • CD-ROM not yet invented (1983), CD-R (1989)

      • Minimal Internet connection

      • Communication 9600 bps (now 10 Mbps)


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Moore’s Law 2

  • $150,000 (now < $1,000)

    • Factor 0f 150

  • 700 Khz chip (now 1 GHz)

    • Factor of 1500

  • 1 MB memory (now 128MB)

    • Factor of 128

  • 80 MB disk (now 40 GB)

    • Factor of 500

  • Communication 9600 bps (now 10 Mbps)

    • Factor of 1000


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What about COS 111?

  • COS 111 is intended for students from the humanities and social sciences who want a one-course introduction to computers and computer science. Emphasis is on understanding how computers really work, starting with a single switch, and showing step by step how to use just that one kind of part to build the most interesting human-made machine. Also addressed are essential limitations of the computer, such as undecidability, as well as future prospects for artificial intelligence and on-line access to the world's knowledge. The laboratory is complementary to the classroom work and explores a broad spectrum of modern applications.


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What does this mean?

  • Building a computer

  • Using a computer

  • Networking the computer

  • Understanding the limitations of the computer

  • Social Issues

  • Applications


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What does this mean?

  • Building a computer

  • Using a computer

  • Networking the computer

  • Understanding the limitations of the computer

  • Societal Issues

  • Applications


Building a computer l.jpg
Building a computer

  • Start with simplest part – switch

  • Build logic gates – AND/OR

    • Use to solve logic problems

  • Build memory

  • Build processing power

    • Arithmetic Unit

  • Build simple programming language


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What does this mean?

  • Building a computer

  • Using a computer

  • Networking the computer

  • Understanding the limitations of the computer

  • Societal Issues

  • Applications


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Using a computer

  • How to represent data

  • How to manipulate data

  • How to manage information

  • Start with 2 applications

    • Picture processing on the computer

    • Sound processing on the computer


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What does this mean?

  • Building a computer

  • Using a computer

  • Networking the computer

  • Understanding the limitations of the computer

  • Societal Issues

  • Applications


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Networking the computer

  • How do computers communicate

    • Protocols TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, …

  • The InterNet

    • What it is and where it came from

    • How it transports email and displays web pages

  • Differing network connections

    • Client/server vs. peer-to-peer

    • How networks facilitate music sharing


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What does this mean?

  • Building a computer

  • Using a computer

  • Networking the computer

  • Understanding the limitations of the computer

  • Societal Issues

  • Applications


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Understanding the limitations of the computer

  • Algorithms for solving simple problems

  • Harder problem

    • Problems unlikely to be solved in our lifetime

    • Problems unlikely to be solved in millennia

  • Undecidable problems

    • Problems that provably can never be solved


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What does this mean?

  • Building a computer

  • Using a computer

  • Networking the computer

  • Understanding the limitations of the computer

  • Societal Issues

  • Applications


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Societal Issues

  • Digital rights management

    • Old ideas of copyright law do not work

    • When is sharing legal?

  • Privacy

    • Systems are not secure

    • How much information should be public

  • Safe communication

    • Should you send your credit card over the internet?


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What does this mean?

  • Building a computer

  • Using a computer

  • Networking the computer

  • Understanding the limitations of the computer

  • Societal Issues

  • Applications


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Applications

  • How well can computers

    • Understand written text

    • Understand spoken text

    • Understand hand drawn pictures

    • Play chess …

  • Possibly a look inside a big program



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What does this mean?

  • Building a computer

    • 6 lectures, 3 problem sets

  • Using a computer

    • 2 lectures, 1 problem set, 2 labs

  • Midterm review and Midterm

    • 2 classes

  • Networking the computer

    • 3 lectures, 2 problem sets, 3 labs

  • Understanding the limitations of the computer

    • 4 lectures, 2 problem sets, 2 labs (programming)

  • Social Issues and Applications

    • 3 lectures, 1 problem set, 1 lab


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Practical Details

  • Lectures Tuesday/Thursday 11-1230

    • No class 9/18, 9/27

    • Lecture notes will be online

    • Class participation expected

  • Labs

    • Start in week of 9/24, due by Friday at 5PM

    • Can do in lab sessions or elsewhere

    • To be scheduled

  • Problem Sets

    • Handed out Thursday, due Tuesday (12 days later)


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Practical Details

  • Paperless course

    • All assignments, lecture notes on web

      • Go to http://www.cs.princeton.edu

      • Click on fall courses

      • Click on COS 111

  • Problem sets

    • Lowest score dropped

    • Must do 7 of 9 to pass the course

  • Labs

    • Must complete all labs to pass the course

  • Midterm and Final


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Practical Details

  • Problem sets 20%

  • Lab reports 10%

  • Midterm exam 25%

  • Final exam 25%

  • Class Participation 20%


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