12 October 2002. Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda. 2. Introduction. In the last several decades, obstetrics, as a science has undergone phenomenal development with a proper understanding of the entire process of pregnancy
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1. FORCEPS DELIVERY – An Overview Prof.S.N.Panda, M.S.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
M.K.C.G.Medical College, Berhampur
2. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 2 Introduction In the last several decades, obstetrics, as a science has undergone phenomenal development with a proper understanding of the entire process of pregnancy & childbirth.
The present day labour management is basically influenced by two factors:
The availability of various modalities of antepartum & postpartum foetal monitoring that gives the obstetrician precise knowledge of the foetal condition, which enables him not only to terminate the pregnancy & labour but also document his decision.
The developments in the fields of anaesthesia, antibiotics, blood transfusion, surgical aids & techniques have made a once dreaded operation - "caesarean section ", very safe to-day.
3. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 3 Introduction In view of these developments, the expectations of all concerned - patient, relatives, attending doctors & authorities including legal system has undergone a sea change so that a small mishap will be viewed seriously.
In such a scenario, the practicing obstetrician of today is likely to have reservations about using instrumental labour management methods of unpredictable course & outcome. Hence today instrumental deliveries are becoming rarer and rarer. In the last two decades, not only very few developments have taken place in this field, many of the instrumental deliveries have become obsolete.
However in the present day concept of active management of labour , forceps still have their own place and should be considered in suitable cases, particularly in developing countries like India.
4. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 4 History Earliest mention of instrumental delivery in Vedic era - "Ankush."
Albucasis described forceps with teeth on the inner surface for dead foetus.
WILLIAM CHAMBERLAIN –
Fled from France in 1569 & practiced forceps delivery as a family secret in Southampton. This was kept as a family secret for over 100yrs and four generations.
He had two sons.
Peter I - had greater distinction & attended notable women in society. Was summoned by R.C.P. & Jailed in 1612. He had no sons.
Peter II - who had several sons, died in 1626.
5. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 5 History Dr Peter III- the most prominent one studied in Cambridge, Oxford, and Padua. Elected a fellow of R.C.P. Died in 1683 in Woodham Mortimer Hall.It is believed that the family treasure was kept buried here, which was latter unearthed in 1813 by the then occupant Mrs.Kembell.
Hugh- had interest in politics, was forced to flee to France, where in 1673 he sold the family secret to Mauriceau. After few years he went to Holland & again sold the secret (only one blade) to Roser Roomhuysen.
6. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 6 History Hugh (son of Hugh)-who was highly educated and respected had patients from best families including Duke of Buckingham allowed the family secret to leak.
The Chamberlain family used four pairs of forceps of different sizes with only cephalic curve.
Levret (1747)-introduced the pelvic curve
Smellie (1751)- reinforced pelvic curve & introduced English lock and used in aftercoming head.
Tarnier (1877)-introduced axis traction.
Barton and Kjielland - introduced the two specialized forceps.
Since then very few and minor developments have taken place. Moreover since the advent of Vacuum extractor, many of the earlier high forceps applications have become obsolete.
7. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 7 Classification of forceps application Classical (old) Classification : -
Low/outlet forceps (no distinction): - forceps applied when the foetal head/skull has reached the pelvic floor, sagital suture has reached the A- P diameter of pelvis and scalp is visible without separating the vulva.
Mid forceps: - forceps applied when head is engaged but criteria for low forceps not reached.
High forceps: - forceps applied when head is not engaged.
8. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 8 Classification of forceps application
9. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 9 Types of Forceps Classical instruments: -Originally designed by James Young Simpson, Wrigley & George L.Elliot Jr in mid 19th century commonly used for outlet & low pelvic rotational delivery.
Modified classical instruments: -Overlapping solid blades with extended shanks like Tucker-Melane forceps, Elliot type commonly used as mid pelvic rotators or outlet blades. May be occasionally pseudofenestrated like Luikart's modification.
Specialized instruments : -Designed for specific indications like-
Barton's for transverse arrest in platypeloid pelvis,
Keilland's for mid pelvic rotation & correction of asynclitism and
Piper's for delivery of Aftercoming head in breech.
10. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 10 Types of Forceps Divergent or parallel blades instrument: -.
Designed to limit foetal cranial compression. Examples -Laufe, Shute & Moolgaoker.
Axis traction instruments: -.
As a separate handle like bill's handle to be attached to any standard forceps.
Axis traction as an integral part of the forceps like Howk-Dennon's& de Wee's forceps.
11. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 11 Functions Traction: -This is the most important function. Pull required in a primigravida is 18 kgs & in a multipara it is 13 kgs.
Compression effect: -This is minimal when properly applied & should not be more than necessary to grasp the head. However it has some pressure effect on the well-ossified base of the skull.
Rotation of head: -This occurs with the use of Kejilland's forceps and also in low forceps cephalic application with the occiput in the 2 or 10 'o' clock position.
Protective cage: - When applied on a premature baby it protects from the pressure of the birth canal. When applied on the aftercoming head it lessens the sudden decompression effect.
As a vectis: - By applying one blade to deliver the head in caesarean section.
12. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 12 Indications for forceps delivery Delay in second stage: -.
Due to uterine inertia.
Failure of progress of labour- if no progress occurs for more than 20 to 30 minutes, with the head on the perineum. Definition of prolonged second stage of labour redefined by A.C.O.G.(1988/1991): -
<3 hrs with regional anaesthesia
<2 hrs without regional anaesthesia
<2 hrs with regional anaesthesia
<1hr without regional anaesthesia
13. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 13 Indications for forceps delivery Foetal indications: -
Foetal distress in second stage when prospect of vaginal delivery is safe: -
Abnormal heart rate pattern
Passage of meconium
Abnormal scalp blood ph
Cord prolapse in second stage
Aftercoming head of breech
Low birth wt. Baby
14. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 14 Indications for forceps delivery Maternal indication: -
Post caesarian pregnancy
Intra partum infection
Neurological disorders where voluntary efforts are contraindicated or impossible
15. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 15 Prerequisites (to be fulfilled before forceps application.) Suitable presentation & position: -.
Vertex, anterior face or aftrcoming head are the ideal positions.
Cervix must be fully dilated.
Membranes must be ruptured.
Baby should be living.
Uterus should be contracting & relaxing.
Bladder must be empty.
16. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 16 Preliminaries (before forceps application ) Documentation: -
All instrumental deliveries should be dictated in medical record as any surgical procedure & it should include: Consent of the patient, indication for operation, anaesthesia, personnel involved, type of instrument, difficulties & remedies, resulting maternal & foetal complications or injuries and blood loss.
Pudendal block or Labio-perineal infiltration for outlet forceps.
Regional or General anaesthesia for low & mid forceps.
Internal examination: -
To asses the state of cervix & membranes, presentation & position, pelvic outlet, TDO & sub pubic angle.
Should be done either before application of forceps or during traction when the perineum bulges.
17. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 17 Types of application (of forceps blades ) Cephalic application -.
Blades are applied along the sides of the head, grasping the biparietal diameter in between the widest part of the blades and the long axis of the blades correspond to the occiputo-mental plane.
Pelvic application: -.
Blades are applied on the lateral pelvic wall ignoring the position of the head if the head is not rotated. Serious compression effect on the cranium can occur, so it should be avoided.
When the head is sufficiently rotated, pelvic & cephalic applications naturally coincide and so pelvic application is only justified in low forceps operations.
18. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 18 Technique (of low & outlet forceps application ) Identification of blades & their application-
The instrument should be placed in front of the pelvis with the tip pointing upwards and pelvic curve forwards. First the left blade should be applied guided by the right hand & then the right blade with the left hand.
Locking of blades: -
The blades should articulate with ease indicting correct application.
19. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 19 Technique (of low & outlet forceps application ) Clinical checks for correct forceps application: -
Sagital suture lies in the midline of the shanks.
The operator is unable to place more than a fingertip between the fenestration of the blade and the foetal head on either side.
Posterior frontanalle is not more than one finger breadth above the plane of the shanks of the forceps.
20. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 20 Technique (of low & outlet forceps application ) Traction: -
Steady & intermittent traction to be applied during contraction, first downwards (horizontal), backwards, forwards & lastly upwards.
In outlet forceps - Only two fingers are to be introduced. Traction is applied straight horizontal, upward & then forwards.
Removal of blades - Right blade should be removed first.
21. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 21 Technique (of low & outlet forceps application ) In Occiputo-posterior position –
Blades are to be applied as usual but they should be equidistant from sinciput & occiput
Traction - Horizontal till the root of the nose is under the pubic symphysis, then upward till the occiput emerges over the perineum & finally downwards.
22. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 22 Technique (of low & outlet forceps application ) In face presentation-
Blades are to be introduced along the Occiputo-mental diameter.
Traction is applied downwards till the chin appears under the symphysis pubis & then upwards delivering the nose, eyes, brow & occiput.
23. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 23 Technique (of mid forceps application ) Forceps used are - long curved with or without axis traction device & Keilland’s.
Indication - following manual rotation in occiputo posterior position.
General anaesthesia is preferable.
Blades are to be introduced only after manual correction of malposition of occiput.
Traction - same as low forceps without axis traction. With axis traction, the traction rods should remain parallel with the shanks and should be removed when the base of the occiput comes under the symphysis.
24. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 24 Forceps for Aftercoming head Piper's forceps are specially designed for this purpose.
Forceps to be applied when the occiput lies against the back of the symphysis
Blades to be applied from below after raising the legs.
Traction to be maintained in an arc, which follows the axis of the birth canal.
25. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 25 Keilland's forceps application Indication: -
Can be applied in unrotated vertex / face presentation and for correction of asynclitism.
Anterior blade is applied first followed by the posterior blade.
In Wondering method in deep transverse arrest:- The anterior blade is applied over the face and then moved over to the anterior parietal bone. The posterior blade is applied between the head and the sacrum.
Blades also can be applied directly over the parietal bones.
26. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 26 Keilland's forceps application Complication: -
Disengagement of the head may occur leading to cord prolapse.
Scanzoni-Smellie maneuver: -
Twice application. First the posterior blade is applied posteriorly over the posterior ear and then the anterior blade is applied over the anterior ear and head is rotated for 45o towards sacrum or 135 o towards symphysis. Then blades are removed and reapplied.
Traction is applied as per Pajot's maneuver: -
Traction is applied horizontally with the right hand while pressing downward with the left hand.
General anaesthesia is necessary.
27. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 27 Complications / Dangers Complications/dangers of forceps delivery: - are mostly due to faulty technique rather than the instrument. Maternal-
Extension of the episiotomy involving anus & rectum or vaginal vault.
Vaginal lacerations and cervical tear if cervix was not fully dilated.
Post partum haemorrhage –.
Due to trauma, Atonic uterus or Anaesthetisia.
Due to blood loss, dehydration or prolonged labour.
Due to improper asepsis or devitalisation of local tissues.
Delayed or long-term sequel –.
Chronic low backache, genital prolapse & stress incontinence.
28. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 28 Complications / Dangers Complications/dangers of forceps delivery: - are mostly due to faulty technique rather than the instrument. Fetal-
Facial / Brachial palsy.
Injury to the soft tissues of face & forehead.
Foetal death-around 2%.
29. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 29 Prophylactic/Elective forceps Introduced by Dee Lee (1920), refers to outlet forceps delivery, only to shorten the second stage of labour to prevent anticipated maternal or foetal complications in - Eclampsia
Low birth wt babies
During epidural anaesthesia
30. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 30 Trial forceps Knowing that a certain degree of disproportion at mid pelvis may make the procedure incompatible, low/mid forceps delivery is attempted, abandoning it at the earliest in favour of Caesarean section.
So it should be done only in the O.T., keeping everything ready for C.S. When a vigorous but unsuccessful attempt is made with the forceps, anticipating a successful forceps delivery.
Mostly it is due to lack of obstetric skill and poor clinical judgment
Factors responsible are- Disproportion, Incomplete cervical dilatation & malposition of foetal head
31. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 31 Conclusion Considering all aspects, forceps delivery has still got a place in modern obstetric practice and should be considered in certain cases.
If performed judiciously by proper selection of cases and careful & timely application, forceps delivery can be useful in reducing not only unnecessary caesarean sections but also foetal & maternal complications due to prolonged labour
32. 12 October 2002 Forceps Delivery - Prof.S.N.Panda 32 Towards a safe motherhood