Effective teaching strategies
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 73

Effective Teaching Strategies PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 107 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Effective Teaching Strategies. Environmental Norms. Be respectful of the prior experience in the room Engage completely Participate in all activities and attend the entire seminar Be accountable to the task at hand Place cell phones in “manner mode” Be responsible for your own learning.

Download Presentation

Effective Teaching Strategies

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Effective teaching strategies

Effective Teaching Strategies


Environmental norms

Environmental Norms

  • Be respectful of the prior experience in the room

  • Engage completely

    • Participate in all activities and attend the entire seminar

    • Be accountable to the task at hand

    • Place cell phones in “manner mode”

  • Be responsible for your own learning


Objectives

Objectives

  • UNDERSTAND the key connection between thorough lesson planning, effective instruction, and student learning

  • KNOW research-based effective teaching strategies

  • APPLY the strategies in context


Contributions from experts

Barth

Brookhart

Brophy

Cobb

Darling-Hammond

DuFour

Flynn

Fullan

Harvey

Haycock

Hill

Lezotte

Marzano

Mayer

McTighe

Mendler

Nuthall

Reeves

Rosenshine

Schmoker

Stiggins

Stronge

The “jury standard”

Tomlinson

White

Wiggins

Wong

Contributions from Experts


Agenda day i

Agenda, Day I

  • CALI Overview

  • Introduction

  • Lesson Planning and Organization

  • Objectives and Goals

  • Feedback and Recognition

  • Effort

  • Cooperative Learning and Flexible Groups

  • Prior Knowledge, Cues, Advanced Organizers

  • Questioning

  • Reflection


Agenda day ii

Agenda, Day II

  • Introduction and Data Teams

  • Summarizing (Homework)

  • Notetaking

  • Nonlinguistic Representations

  • Non Fiction Writing

  • Similarities and Differences

  • Reflection and Closing


Examining your current practice

Examining Your Current Practice

  • What “effective” strategies are you currently using in your classrooms?


Art and science of teaching three broad categories

Art and Science of TeachingThree Broad Categories

  • Learning goals, high expectations, track student progress, and celebrate success (Chapter 1)

  • Interact with new knowledge (Chapter 2)

  • Practice and deepen understanding (Chapter 3)

Marzano, Art and Science of Teaching


Strategies

Strategies

  • Macrostrategies

    • Cooperative and Flexible Grouping

    • Nonlinguistic Representations

    • Questioning

    • Reflection

    • Non-fiction Writing

    • Summarizing and Notetaking


Strategies1

Strategies

  • Other research based strategies

    • Activating Prior Knowledge

    • Cues, Advance Organizers

    • Generating and Testing Hypotheses


Lesson organization

LESSON ORGANIZATION


Let s begin with the end in mind

Let’s begin with the end in mind.….

  • What will I do to develop effective lessons which incorporate our planned use of “effective” strategies?

Art and Science, p. 174


Coordinating our efforts

Coordinating our efforts

Making Standards Work

Common Formative Assessments

Data Driven Decision Making/Data Teams

Effective Teaching Strategies


Coordinating our efforts1

Coordinating our efforts

What to teach; standards,mandates, student interest

Monitor learning – Provide feedback

Individual student needs and learning styles

How to teach it


What does effective mean

What Does “Effective” Mean?

“The reflective process is at the very heart of accountability. It is through reflection that we distinguish between the popularity of teaching techniques and their effectiveness. The question is not ‘Did I like it?’ but rather ‘Was it effective?’”

(Reeves, D. B., Accountability for Learning, 2004, p. 52)

And…..how do you know?


Most effective teaching strategies

Most Effective Teaching Strategies?

  • EFFECTIVE: Actions of the teacher that elevate or lift cognition of learners

  • The simple question is, “Is it working for you and your students as evidenced by learning outcomes?”

  • What teaching strategies are most commonly used in your schools that DO NOT WORK?


Generate hypotheses about teacher a and teacher b

Generate Hypotheses About Teacher A and Teacher B:

  • Same class makeup – a mix of diverse backgrounds and learning needs (ELL, poverty, inclusion, etc.)

  • Same class size

  • Same schedule, materials, curriculum

  • Teacher A – 18% of students proficient

  • Teacher B – 82 % of students proficient

  • ACTIVITY: Discuss with your table possible causes of the difference


Teacher and leader beliefs influence student achievement

Teacher and leader beliefs influence student achievement!

Student Causes Teacher Causes

Source: Leadership for Learning, 2005, Center for Performance Assessment, www.MakingStandardsWork.com


Learning cycle teaching assessing and reflecting

Learning Cycle: Teaching, Assessing and Reflecting


Planning and organizing

Planning and Organizing

  • What is the value of planning and organizing prior to instructing?


Elements of lesson plans

Elements of Lesson Plans

Effective lesson plans:

  • Offer ‘prompts’ or cues for actions, steps, etc.

  • Support linear or non-linear flexible options

  • Are like a framework or blueprint

  • Consider each aspect of the learning cycle (teaching, assessing, reflecting)

    ACTIVITY: Generate a list of must-have elements for your lesson plan


Tools

Tools

Templates/Formats

  • Allow organized approach to process

  • Generate ideas

  • Provide focus

  • Decrease stress

  • Save time

    ACTIVITY: Unit Planning Template


Effective teaching strategies

Revised Blooms Taxonomy


Effective teaching strategies

Optimal learning is a direct result

of effective instruction which is a

direct result of essential

and thorough lesson planning.


Effective teaching strategies

What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, create a positive learning environment, track student progress, and celebrate success?


Goals and objectives

Goals and Objectives

What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, create a positive learning environment, track student progress, and celebrate success?


Objectives and high expectations

Objectives and High Expectations

In examining 1500 K-12 classrooms, 24-7 consultants found that clear learning objectives were established in ____%.


Research on goals and objectives

Research on Goals and Objectives

  • Narrow the focus (Marzano)

  • Not too specific (Marzano)

  • High expectations (TESA)

  • Aligned with standards (CSDE)

  • Know and able to do (Marzano)


Feedback and recognition

Feedback and Recognition

What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, create a positive learning environment, track student progress, and celebrate success?


Feedback

Feedback

“Feedback gives information that a student can use….so that they can understand where they are in their learning and what to do next.” The goal is to give students the feeling that they have control over their own learning.

Brookhart, 2008


Powerful strategy

Powerful Strategy

  • Kluger and DeNisi (1996), in a meta-analysis, found that the average effect on feedback intervention was .41. This means that groups receiving feedback outperformed control groups by .41 standard deviations—an effect of moving from the 50th to 66th percentile on a standardized test.

    • As reported in Brookhart, 2008


Managing feedback

Managing feedback

  • Process

  • Content

Susan Brookhart, How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students


Feedback process

Timing

Amount

Mode

Audience

When Given

How Often

How many areas

How much about each area

Oral, written, visual, demonstration

Individual, Group, Class

Feedback Process


Feedback should be

Feedback should be…

  • “Corrective in nature”

  • Timely

  • Specific to a criterion

    ________________________________

    And…..

  • Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback.

Marzano, Classroom Instruction That Works, p 96


Focus on the content

Focus on the Content

  • Focus

  • Function

  • Comparison

  • Valence

  • Clarity

  • Specificity

  • Tone


The bottom line

The Bottom Line…..

  • Focus on the work, process or student’s self regulation.

  • Compare to criteria (work), other students (processes or effort), or past performance (especially struggling learners).

  • Describe, don’t judge.

  • Use positive comments; accompany negative comments with positive suggestions for improvement.

  • Be clear to the student.

  • Tailor the specificity to the student.

  • Be respectful of the student and the work.


Math examples

Math Examples

  • “I know you worked this out with your group. Good strategy.”

  • “You could have expressed these (decimals) as 13/100, 72/100 and 4/5. Sometimes you can’t reduce and it is easier to say out of one hundred. The more you rounded, the less accurate your fractions were. “

  • “These aren’t as accurate. I think rounding and reducing worked better.”


More math examples

More math examples

  • “You didn’t answer the second part of the problem.”

  • “Your explanation was the shortest one in class. Can you write more next time?”

  • “Put these fractions in order and they will make more sense.”

  • “Multiple errors in spelling on the explanation. Please correct and resubmit.”


Grade 7 social studies

Grade 7 Social Studies

  • “This is too general.” (Response to naming two reasons South felt they should secede.)

  • “This is similar to your first reason. Is there another reason to stay? Make the government for effective, for example? “(Why some Southerners felt South should not secede)

  • “Multiple errors in spelling. Check the text.”


English language arts grade 10

English Language Arts Grade 10

  • “This essay demonstrates your strength in synthesizing—connecting various examples and unifying them with strong overall organization. The thesis is clear; it acts as an effective focus for the silence that occurred when power was being abused.”

  • “Great support. Strong evidence for your attention to diction, style, sentence variety. What a pleasure to read!”


Feedback for struggling students

Feedback for Struggling Students

  • Focus feedback on the process. This will help them determine what actions can lead to further success. They will be “learning to learn.”

    “I noted that you reread your paper three times and made changes. Going back and checking helps you catch problems, doesn’t it?”


Feedback for struggling students1

Feedback for Struggling Students

  • Use self-referenced feedback (formatively) which addresses improvement.

    • “This paragraph had a lot more vivid verbs than the one you did last week. It is much more exciting to read.”

    • Note: For grading, use standards- or criterion-based feedback.


Feedback for struggling students2

Feedback for Struggling Students

  • Limit important points.

  • Focus on small steps for improvement.

  • Use simple vocabulary, explaining words as you go.

  • Check for understanding by asking questions….”What is one thing that we talked about that you are going to do for the next paragraph?”


Looking at student work and structuring feedback

Looking at Student Workand Structuring Feedback

  • Use the criteria in “The Bottom Line” to craft feedback to one piece of student work.


The take on recognition

The “Take” on Recognition

1. Recognition includes praise and reward

2. Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect

3. Reward works when contingent upon achievement of a standard

4. Abstract, symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards

5. Tangible rewards can be + when used as contingent on achievement of standard

6. Tangible rewards “do not seem to work well as motivators”

_________________________________________

Abstract rewards—particularly praise—when given for accomplishing specific performance goals, can be a powerful motivator for students

Classroom Instruction That Works, p. 55


Reinforcing effort

Reinforcing Effort

What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, create a positive learning environment, track student progress, and celebrate success?


Effort motivation

Effort/Motivation

  • “Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort.”

  • “Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.”

Marzano, Classroom Instruction That Works, p. 50


School climate to support effort

School Climate to Support Effort

  • Teacher responsibilities….

    • Demonstrate enthusiasm for youth and learning

    • Build personal, social, and academic relationships between self and among youth

    • Respect power-authority relationships

    • Ensure students have hope

    • Teach and reinforce effort

Mendler, Motivating Students Who Don’t Care


What will i do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge

What will I do to help students effectively interact with NEW knowledge?


Flexible grouping and cooperative learning

Flexible Grouping and Cooperative Learning

What will I do to help students effectively interact with NEW knowledge?


Student data sheet

Student Data Sheet

  • Review the data from a classroom of 12 students.


Grouping task one

Grouping Task One

  • You have been teaching reading to your class of students. You want to put them into three flexible reading groups. Your plan is to work with each group on reading comprehension skills. Group your students. Be prepared to support your decisions.


Grouping task two

Grouping Task Two

  • You want to do some multicultural literature circles. You have chosen four books.

    • Esmeralda’s Secret Life

    • Morgan Gets a Horse, Oh No!

    • Walking the Tribal Way

    • A Long Haul in a Big Truck

      How would you assign student group membership to the four books and why?


Grouping task three

Grouping Task Three

  • You have been teaching Connecticut history. Your objective is that students will demonstrate a clear understanding why settlements grew along rivers. You want to develop some learning options that support your students’ learning styles. Think of three assignments that allow students to use their analytic, practical or creative styles. How would you group your students?


Why group students

Why group students?

  • Why group students?

  • What challenges do you face in grouping students?

  • What is cooperative learning?


Activating prior knowledge cues and advanced organizers

Activating Prior Knowledge(Cues and Advanced Organizers)

What will I do to help students effectively interact with NEW knowledge?


Activating prior knowledge

Activating Prior Knowledge

What do your students already know?


Cues and advance organizers

Cues and Advance Organizers

  • Research/Foundation

    • Preview activities

    • Help students access what they already know about a topic

    • Activation of prior knowledge is critical to learning

    • Background knowledge influences what we perceive and learn


Effective teaching strategies

Cues

  • Should focus on what is important rather than on what is unusual

  • Use explicit cues—direct approach

  • KNU (enhanced KWL)

    • Already know

    • Need to learn (based on standards)

    • Understand

  • BKWLQ

    • Background, know, want to know, learned, questions


  • Advanced organizers

    Advanced Organizers

    • Expository

    • Narrative

    • Skimming

    • Graphic

      Advanced organizers help students focus on important information by providing a mental set.


    Expository advance organizers

    Expository Advance Organizers

    • An expository advance organizer may simply provide students with the meaning and purpose of what is to follow.

    • On the other hand an expository organizer may present students with more detailed information of what they will be learning especially the information that may be difficult to understand.

    • (J.Scott, Missouri Assessment Program, 2003)


    Narrative advance organizers

    Narrative Advance Organizers

    • A narrative advance organizer takes the form of a story. Here the teacher provides the essential ideas of a lesson or unit she plans to teach by telling a story that incorporates the ideas.

      (J. Scott, Missouri Assessment Program, 2003)


    Skimming as an advance organizer

    Skimming as an Advance Organizer

    When a teacher asks students to skim learning materials, it provides them with the opportunity to preview the important information that they will encounter later by focusing on and noting what stands out in headings, subheadings, and highlighted information.(J. Scott, Missouri Assessment Program, 2003)


    Graphic advanced organizers

    “Graphic” Advanced Organizers

    • Graphic organizers provide students with guidance on what the important information is in a lesson or unit.

    • They give students direction and provide a visual representation of the important information.

    • It is easy to see what is important and the relationships between the ideas and patterns in the information where they exist.


    Questioning

    Questioning

    What will I do to help students effectively interact with NEW knowledge?


    Questioning1

    Questioning

    • “We are moving from viewing questions as devices by which one evaluates….learning to conceptualizing questions as a means of actively processing, thinking about, and using information productively.

    • Teacher questioning behaviors affect which students learn how much.

    Walsh and Sattes, 2005


    Research and practice

    Research and Practice

    • Questioning

      • Process

        • Wait Time

        • Language Development in ELL’s

      • Content

        • Level (Taxonomy)

        • Essential Questions

        • Increasing Rigor and Relevance

    Marzano, 2001


    Effective teaching strategies

    Questions to Support Language Development

    Hill and Flynn, Classroom Instruction that works with English Language Learners, 2006


    Promoting rigor and relevance

    Promoting Rigor and Relevance

    Christianberry and Kelly, 1983


    Promoting rigor and relevance1

    Promoting Rigor and Relevance

    Overlapping

    Questions

    Dense

    Questions


    Rigorous questions

    Rigorous Questions

    • Let’s look at student examples.

    • Let’s build one together using the 5-8 grade social studies standards in your materials. The focus is the Civil War.


    Reflection

    Reflection


  • Login