DRUG & ALCOHOL AWARENESS
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DRUG & ALCOHOL AWARENESS. CORPORATE SAFETY TRAINING. WELCOME. COURSE OBJECTIVES. Discuss the Components of an Effective Program. Introduce Ideas to Help Develop an Effective Program. Discuss the Drug-Free Workplace Policy. Clarification of the Expected Roles of Employers.

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DRUG & ALCOHOL AWARENESS

CORPORATE

SAFETY TRAINING

WELCOME


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COURSE OBJECTIVES

  • Discuss the Components of an Effective Program.

  • Introduce Ideas to Help Develop an Effective Program.

  • Discuss the Drug-Free Workplace Policy.

  • Clarification of the Expected Roles of Employers.

  • Clarification of the Expected Roles of Employees.

  • Explanation of the Effects of Drug Use.

  • Overview of Rehabilitative Services.

  • Overview of Drug Testing Methods.


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REGULATORY STANDARD

THE GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE

FEDERAL - 29 CFR 1903.1

EMPLOYERS MUST: Furnish a place of employment free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees. Employers must comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.

OSHA ACT OF 1970


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APPLICABLE REGULATIONS

Continued

FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS

THE DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE ACT OF 1988:

  • 1986 - Signed by the President.

  • 1988 - Congress Passed the Drug-Free Workplace Act.

  • Affects Federal Grantees Receiving $25,000 or More.

  • Affects Federal Contracts Receiving $25,000 or More.

  • Requires a Written Policy.

  • Requires that Employees Read and Consent to the Policy.

  • Requires that an Awareness Program be Instituted.

  • Employees Must Disclose Any Drug Related Conviction in the Workplace to the Employer Within 5 Days of the Conviction.


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APPLICABLE REGULATIONS

Continued

FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS

THE DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE ACT OF 1988:

Continued

  • Employers must Disclose Any Drug Related Conviction in the Workplace to the Federal Agency with Which the Employer has a Grant or Contract Within 10 Days of the Conviction.

  • Employers Must Make an Ongoing Effort to Maintain a Workplace Free of Drugs.


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APPLICABLE REGULATIONS

Continued

STATE REQUIREMENTS

REQUIREMENTS VARY FROM STATE TO STATE:

  • Some States, CA, AL, FL, WA and Others Have Programs.

  • Many States Offer Workers’ Compensation Discounts.

  • Criteria are Similar but No Standard Model Exists.

  • Employers Must Meet Certification Criteria in Each State.

  • Employers Must Maintain Certifications to Participate.

  • Certain Fees May be Required of the Employer.

  • De-certification Can Occur for Various Reasons.


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APPLICABLE REGULATIONS

Continued

STATE REQUIREMENTS

TYPICAL STATE REQUIREMENTS:

  • A Corporate Policy Statement.

  • Employee Notification of the Policy.

  • Employee Notification of Substance Abuse Testing.

  • Substance Abuse Testing Program.

  • Employee Assistance Program.

  • Supervisor Training.

  • Employee Training.

  • Agreements to Confidentiality.


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APPLICABLE REGULATIONS

Continued

STATE REQUIREMENTS

SPECIFIC

REQUIREMENTS

OF THIS STATE INCLUDE:


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APPLICABLE REGULATIONS

Continued

FOR SPECIFIC STATE REQUIREMENTS

Contact the State Attorney General

or

GUIDE TO STATE DRUG TESTING LAWS

Published by:Institute for a Drug-Free Workplace

1225 I Street, N.W.

Washington, DC 20005-3914

(202) 842-7400 Fax (202) 842-0022

Price (may change): $115 Single Copy

$75 ea, 2 or More


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TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

TYPICAL SUPERVISOR TRAINING REQUIREMENTS:

  • Two Hour Training Course.

  • The Relationship Between Work & Personal Problems.

  • Recognition of Employee Substance Abuse.

  • Documenting Signs of Employee Substance Abuse.

  • Corroborating Signs of Employee Substance Abuse.

  • How to Refer Employees to the Employee Assistance Program.

  • Circumstances and Procedures for Post-Injury Testing.

  • Supervisor Responsibilities in a “Last Chance Agreement”.

  • Employee Confidentiality.


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TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

Continued

TYPICAL EMPLOYEE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS:

  • One Hour Course Conducted Annually.

  • The Disease Model of Addiction for Alcohol and Drugs.

  • Effects & Dangers of Commonly Abused Workplace Substances.

  • The Employer’s Policies/Procedures Regarding Substance Abuse.

  • How to Access the Employee Assistance Program.

  • Provided in a Non-English Language if Required.


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RETRAINING REQUIREMENTS

  • MAY BE REQUIRED:

  • Annually for Some States.

  • For a Program Related Injury.


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Reduce injury and illness rates.

Help Individuals with personal problems.

Increase performance and productivity.

Increase profits.

Workers feel better about their work.

Reduce workers’ compensation costs.

Elevate safety compliance to a higher level.

TRAINING IS IMPORTANT

A GOOD PROGRAM WILL HELP:


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DEDICATION

PERSONAL INTEREST

MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT

PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

IMPLEMENTATION OF A DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE PROGRAM REQUIRES:

NOTE:

UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORT FROM THE WORK FORCE

IS ESSENTIAL, WITHOUT IT THE PROGRAM WILL FAIL!


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NEEDS

ASSESSMENT

POLICIES

TRAINING

EMPLOYEE

ASSISTANCE

PROGRAM

DRUG

TESTING

PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

Continued

PROGRAM COMPONENTS


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Establish responsibility.

Assess organizational needs.

Develop policies and rules.

Employee Assistance Program?

Drug Testing?

Inform the workforce.

Conduct employee training.

Implement the paper program.

Periodically review the program.

Modify policies and rules as appropriate.

PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

Continued

DEVELOPMENT SEQUENCE:


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Hospitalization costs.

Accident investigation fees.

Costs of replacing stolen items.

Legal fees, court fees, travel costs.

Wages paid for temporary staffing.

Wages paid for accident downtime.

Wages paid for tardy or missed days.

Replacement costs of damaged equipment.

Increased costs for insurance, & physicians.

Costs of security services and or consulting services.

HIDDEN COSTS OF ABUSE

Continued

COSTS OF ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE


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HIDDEN COSTS OF ABUSE

Continued

COSTS OF ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE

Annual Costs for Business

$60 - 150 Billion


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75% had used drugs on the job.

64% admitted that drugs adversely affected job performance.

44% said they had sold drugs to other employees

18% said they had stolen from co-workers.

HIDDEN COSTS OF ABUSE

Continued

STATISTICS FROM A “COCAINE HOTLINE”:


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HIDDEN COSTS OF ABUSE

Continued

THOSE WHO ILLICITLY USE DRUGS ARE:

  • 2.5 times more likely to have absences of 8 days or more.

  • 3.6 times more likely to injure themselves or others on the job.

  • 5.0 times more likely to be injured off the job.

  • 5.0 times more likely to file a workers’ compensation claim.

  • 1/3 less productive than their co-workers who didn’t.

  • Incurred 300 percent higher medical costs.


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Fewer accidents.

Fewer disciplinary actions.

Cost savings and incentive programs:

- Medical & health insurance carriers

- Workers' Compensation insurance carriers.

- Property, casualty, and liability insurance carriers.

Reduced losses due to absenteeism, theft, and fraud.

Less chance that a user/abuser will apply and be hired.

Ability to respond quickly to program related problems.

PROGRAM BENEFITS

SHORT-TERM BENEFITS:


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Reduced costs of insurance claims.

Lower costs due to losses and errors.

Improved employee morale and productivity.

Earlier identification and resolution of problems.

Greater employee awareness about the problem.

Decreased legal costs and costs of hiring and training.

PROGRAM BENEFITS

Continued

LONG-TERM BENEFITS:


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CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING:

THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE

  • 1. GET AS MUCH TRAINING AS POSSIBLE.

  • 2. GET TO KNOW YOUR PEOPLE!

  • 3. GET INVOLVED IN, AND UNDERSTAND THE PROGRAM.

  • 4. EXPLAIN THE PROGRAM TO EMPLOYEES.

  • 5. OBTAIN ASSISTANCE FROM EXPERTS IN THE FIELD.

  • 6. UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF SUPERVISION.

  • 7. ACCEPT YOUR RESPONSIBILITY.

  • 8. KNOW WHERE YOUR AUTHORITY STOPS.

  • 9. FOLLOW-UP ON THE ACTIONS YOU TOOK.


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GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION:

THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE

Continued

  • 1. BE ATTENTIVE: Be ready to recognize employee problems (e.g., accidents, frequent lateness, mood swings) that may or may not be related to alcohol or other drug abuse.

  • 2. BE OBSERVANT: Focus on specifics aspects of job performance.

  • 3. DOCUMENT: Keep an ongoing record of the employee's performance.

  • 4. FOCUS ON JOB PERFORMANCE: Avoid judging, diagnosing, or counseling the employee.


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GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION:

THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE

Continued

  • 5. BE THOUGHTFUL: Stay nonjudgmental and recognize the employee's point of view.

  • 6. BE STRAIGHTFORWARD: Stick to the facts of job performance; don't get sidetracked.

  • 7. BE CONSISTENT: Follow the same procedures for all employees.

  • 8. MAINTAIN CONFIDENTIALITY. Discuss employee problems in private and keep the discussion between the two of you.


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GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION:

THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE

Continued

  • 9. REFER: Encourage troubled employees to seek help from the resources available in the workplace or the community.

  • 10. FOLLOW-UP: Continue to assess employee job performance over a period of time.


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SIGNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE:

THE SUPERVISOR’S ROLE

Continued

  • 1. Absenteeism: Two to three times more than other employees.

  • 2. Staff Turnover: Many quit rather than face detection.

  • 3. Lower Productivity: Perform at 2/3 of their work potential.

  • 4. Equipment Breakdown: May use this as a stopwork excuse.

  • 5. Poor Work Quality: Mental and physical agility deteriorates.

  • 6. Poor Morale: Abuse creates wide mood swings, anxiety, depression and anger.

  • 7. Increased Accidents. Abusers are 3.6 times more likely to have or cause an accident.

  • 8. Near Misses: Even small quantities of drugs can cause a near miss. Always treat a near miss just like an actual accident.


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DENIAL: The employee denies that problems exist and insists that everyone is out to get them.

RESPONSE: Stay calm. Have at hand documentation of the job performance and/or conduct and keep the conversation focused on performance issues.

COUNSELING SCENARIOS


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THREATS: "If you push me, I'll go to an attorney . . . make a scene - - - quit here and now . . . "

RESPONSE: Remind them that they are free to do what ever they choose. Remind them of your responsibility. If you lose objectivity seek the help of another supervisor or manager.

COUNSELING SCENARIOS

Continued


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RATIONALIZATION: "If this job wasn't so stressful, I wouldn't be making so many mistakes and wouldn't be late so often."

RESPONSE: Stay focused on work performance. Avoid being distracted by excuses; let the employee know that help is available.

COUNSELING SCENARIOS

Continued


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ANGRY OUTBURST: The employee becomes angry. He or she may cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

RESPONSE: Do not react! Wait until the employee has run out of steam and then continue where you left off; keep the focus on performance issues. If the employee continues to carry on, reschedule the meeting.

COUNSELING SCENARIOS

Continued


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Says we want you if you invest in yourself. cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

Lets you decide what is most important.

Comes with conditions:

- Periodic drug testing.

- Rehabilitation.

- No relapses.

- Measured work performance.

Confidentiality will be maintained.

Keeps a good worker working.

THE LAST CHANCE AGREEMENT

LAST CHANCE AGREEMENT:


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STAGE 1 cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

CASUAL OR EXPERIMENTAL USE

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

STAGE 2

MORE FREQUENT DRUG USE

STAGE 3

PREOCCUPIED WITH GETTING HIGH

STAGE 4

COMPULSIVE USE


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STAGE 1 cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

CASUAL OR EXPERIMENTAL USE

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

STAGE 2

MORE FREQUENT DRUG USE

STAGE 3

PREOCCUPIED WITH GETTING HIGH

STAGE 4

COMPULSIVE USE


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CASUAL OR EXPERIMENTAL USE: cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

  • The person gets high but no one thinks it is a problem. There

  • may not be any signs of use at this stage.

STAGE 1

CASUAL OR EXPERIMENTAL USE


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STAGE 1 cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

CASUAL OR EXPERIMENTAL USE

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

STAGE 2

MORE FREQUENT DRUG USE

STAGE 3

PREOCCUPIED WITH GETTING HIGH

STAGE 4

COMPULSIVE USE


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MORE FREQUENT ALCOHOL OR OTHER DRUG USE: cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

  • The person starts using more often - even during the week.

  • Clues include:

  • - Changes in friends.

  • - Poor school or work performance

  • - Mood changes and possible “blackouts”.

STAGE 2

MORE FREQUENT DRUG USE


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STAGE 1 cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

CASUAL OR EXPERIMENTAL USE

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

STAGE 2

MORE FREQUENT DRUG USE

STAGE 3

PREOCCUPIED WITH GETTING HIGH

STAGE 4

COMPULSIVE USE


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PREOCCUPIED WITH GETTING HIGH: cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

  • - Daily use is common, others may binge once a week or so.

  • - The user is ill more often

  • - Family and job problems get worse.

  • - The user may begin to have trouble with the law.

  • - Family and friends become concerned.

STAGE 3

PREOCCUPIED WITH GETTING HIGH


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STAGE 1 cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

CASUAL OR EXPERIMENTAL USE

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

STAGE 2

MORE FREQUENT DRUG USE

STAGE 3

PREOCCUPIED WITH GETTING HIGH

STAGE 4

COMPULSIVE USE


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COMPULSIVE USE: cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

THE STAGES OF ABUSE

Continued

  • - Without the drug the user may go into withdrawal.

  • - Blackouts and overdosing are more common.

  • - The family feels torn apart.

  • - Getting money to buy drugs becomes an obsession,

  • - The user is about to lose his or her job.

  • - The user is isolated from friends.

  • - Without treatment, insanity and or death may follow.

STAGE 4

COMPULSIVE USE


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Marijuana. cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

Cocaine.

Alcohol.

Depressants (valium, librium, xanax, serax etc.).

Amphetamines (dexedrine, ritalin, methedrine).

Heroin and Other Opiates (heroin, morphine, codeine).

Inhalants (plastic cement, lighter fluid, ether etc.).

Hallucinogens (PCP, LSD, Designer Drugs).

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS:


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

Continued

MARIJUANA

The most commonly abused illicit drug -- used by more than nine million Americans. In the workplace, almost 10 percent of U.S. workers report that they are current users of marijuana.


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THC or delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

- Grass, pot, weed, ganja, doobie, reefer, Mary Jane.

Type of Drug

Derived from the hemp plant Cannabis Sativa.

How Taken

Smoked or sometimes used in food (brownies).

Effects

Euphoric feeling; increased sense of well-being.

Lack of motivation, lowered inhibitions, talkativeness.

Dry mouth and throat.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

MARIJUANA:

Continued


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Increased appetite - “munchies”. cry, yell, or scream. This emotional outburst is intended to scare off the supervisor and cause him or her to drop the whole affair.

Impaired coordination, concentration, and memory

Increased heart rate.

Dangers

Deteriorating performance at work or at school.

“Burn out” involving muddled thinking.

Acute frustration, depression, and isolation.

Impaired sexual development and fertility.

Production of abnormal sperm.

Menstrual irregularities.

Damage to the lungs and pulmonary system

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

MARIJUANA:

Continued


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One joint equal to 25 commercial cigarettes in this regard.

Impaired ability to operate machinery and vehicles.

Hallucinations and paranoia in high doses.

Increased risk to safety and health at work.

Increased accident rates at work.

Prolonged use can lead to psychological dependance.

Can be a “gateway” to more serious drugs.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

MARIJUANA:

Continued


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS regard.

Continued

COCAINE

A commonly abused illicit drug -- used by 1.3 million Americans. More than 66 percent are employed by American businesses. Because it is so costly ($100.00 per gram), it is often associated with criminal behavior.


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Cocaine hydrochloride regard.

- Coke, blow, snow, toot, flake.

Type of Drug

A highly potent organic stimulant derived from the coca plant.

A white crystalline powder sometimes cut/diluted with sugar.

Other Forms

Crack, an expensive purified form of cocaine.

- Known to show signs of clinical addiction after one use.

Freebase, is formed by heating pure cocaine, mixing it with

ether and sodium bicarbonate and smoking it.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

COCAINE:


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How Taken regard.

Sniffed or snorted through the nose (cocaine)

Smoked (crack)

Effects

Brief but intense feelings of euphoria and competence.

Stimulates the central nervous system.

Increases pulse, blood pressure, body temperature.

Increases respiratory rate.

Sleeplessness and chronic fatigue.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

COCAINE:

Continued


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Dangers regard.

Bleeding and other damage to nasal passages.

Paranoid psychosis, hallucinations, mental abnormalities.

Impaired ability to operate machinery and vehicles.

Death caused by heart or respiratory failure.

Injury or death caused by freebasing (volatile when heated).

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

COCAINE:

Continued


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS regard.

Continued

ALCOHOL

The most commonly abused substance in the United States -- used by almost fifty percent of Americans. Estimated to have cost the nation almost $99 billion in 1990.


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Ethyl alcohol (liquor, cocktails, spirits, booze). regard.

Type of Drug

Acts as a depressant on the central nervous system.

A psychoactive ingredient in beer, wine, and distilled liquor.

How Taken

Consumed in drinks but can be used in cooking as well.

Effects

Initially acts as a stimulant, invigorates thought and activity.

Eventually acts as a depressant.

In higher doses causes aggressive tendencies.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

ALCOHOL:


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In higher doses causes aggressive tendencies. regard.

In extremely high doses causes sedation and coma.

Causes reddening of the eyes.

Impairs the ability to use self-control.

Impairs memory, coordination and driving ability.

Dangers

Safe if used in moderation by otherwise healthy people.

Impaired ability to operate machinery and vehicles.

Blackouts or memory loss from minutes to days.

Can damage the liver, heart, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract.

Can increase susceptibility to disease.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

ALCOHOL:

Continued


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS regard.

Continued

DEPRESSANTS

The largest and most commonly abused category of controlled substances -- The impact of depressants abuse on the workplace is substantial in highly stressful or demanding positions.


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Three groups; Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates, Methaqualone. regard.

Benzodiazepines: Valium, Librium, Xanax, Tranxene etc.

- Tranquilizers, sleeping pills.

Barbiturates: Seconal, Nembutal Amytal, Butisol, Tuinol etc.

- Downers, barbs, goofballs, blues, yellows, reds, etc.

Methaqualone: Quaalude, Hymnal, Mandrax, Parest, Ect.

- Ludes, sopors, 714s

Type of Drug

Synthetically produced legal drugs often prescribed.

Distribution is controlled by the FDA.

How Taken

Consumed orally, can be injected into the bloodstream.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

DEPRESSANTS:

Continued


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Effects regard.

Produces sedation and/or sleep

Lessens tension, anxiety, and irritability.

Can cause confusion, slurred speech, depression.

Can cause lack of coordination, loss of motor control.

Can cause disorientation, and suicidal behavior.

Dangers

Safe if properly prescribed to otherwise healthy people.

Impaired ability to operate machinery and vehicles.

In extremely high doses causes sedation, coma and death.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

DEPRESSANTS:

Continued


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS regard.

Continued

AMPHETAMINES

A commonly abused category of controlled substances -- Some workers believe (inaccurately) that amphetamines will enhance performance and creativity. They ignore the physical and mental dangers.


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Dexedrine, Biphetamine, Ritalin, Preludin Methedrine. regard.

Benzodiazepines: Valium, Librium, Xanax, Tranxene etc.

Barbiturates: Seconal, Nembutal Amytal, Butisol, Tuinol etc.

Methaqualone: Quaalude, Hymnal, Mandrax, Parest, Ect.

- Speed, uppers, bennies, dexies, black beauties, pep pills etc.

Type of Drug

Chemically manufactured drugs.

Stimulants of the central nervous system.

How Taken

Consumed orally, injected, or inhaled into the nose.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

AMPHETAMINES:

Continued


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Effects regard.

Produces feelings of alertness and euphoria.

Increases heart rate and blood pressure.

Dilates the pupils of the eyes.

Decreases appetite.

Causes distorted thinking.

Enables sleeplessness for relatively long periods of time.

Dangers

Dizziness, headaches, blurred vision, and sweating.

Loss of coordination, tremors, convulsions, and collapse.

Anorexia and malnutrition resulting from decreased appetite.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

AMPHETAMINES:

Continued


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Dangers regard.

Nervousness, irritability, and drastic mood swings.

Hallucinations, paranoia, physical collapse.

Brain deterioration.

Sudden blood pressure increases from injections resulting in:

- Fever.

- Stroke.

- Heart failure.

Continued heavy use can be fatal.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

AMPHETAMINES:

Continued


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS regard.

Continued

HEROIN & OTHER OPIATES

1.8 million Americans have used heroin in their lifetime. Heroin accounts for more than 90% of the opiate abuse in the United States. Because of AIDS, snorting or smoking heroin has increased dramatically in recent years.


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Heroin (smack, junk, brown sugar, dope, horse, skunk etc.).

Morphine (mud, M, dope, morpho).

Codeine (schoolboy, coties).

Type of Drug

Derived from the resin of the poppy plant.

Acts as a depressant on the central nervous system.

How Taken

Heroin - Injected, snorted, or smoked.

Codeine and morphine are usually injected or taken orally.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

HEROIN & OTHER OPIATES:

Continued


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Other Forms etc.).

Opioids, synthetic substitutes, have similar effects.

- Darvon, demerol, meperidine and methodone.

- Methodone is legally prescribed for heroin treatment.

- Methodone can also be addictive.

Effects (general)

Short-lived state of euphoria, followed by drowsiness.

Slowed heart rate, breathing, and brain activity.

Depressed appetite, thirst, reflexes, and sexual desire.

Increased tolerance for pain.

Impairs memory, coordination and driving ability.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

HEROIN & OTHER OPIATES:

Continued


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS etc.).

Continued

HEROIN & OTHER OPIATES:

Continued

  • Dangers

  • Extreme addiction and withdrawal.

  • AIDS, blood poisoning, and hepatitis from shared needles.

  • Impaired ability to operate machinery and vehicles.

  • Death resulting from injection of impure heroin.

  • Death resulting from injection of high purity heroin.

  • Convulsions, coma, or death from overdose.


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS etc.).

Continued

INHALANTS

The percentage of high school students who reported using inhalants at least once climbed to 19.4 percent in 1993 making inhalants the most widely abused substances after alcohol and tobacco among this age group.


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Street Names: Plastic cement, fingernail polish remover, etc.).

lighter fluid, nitrous oxide, ether, hairspray, insecticides, and

cleaning fluid.

Type of Drug

Breathable substances that produce psychoactive effects.

How Taken

Inhaled into the nose or mouth.

Effects

Short-term

- Short-lived high resulting in dizziness & lightheadedness.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

INHALANTS:

Continued


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS etc.).

Continued

INHALANTS:

Continued

  • Effects

  • Short-term (continued)

  • - Can cause sneezing, coughing, runny nose, nose bleeds.

  • - Can cause nausea, abnormal heart rhythm and chest pain.

  • - Can causes impaired coordination, balance and judgment.

  • Long-term

  • - Liver, nerve, and brain damage.

  • - Heart failure, respiratory arrest, suffocation, coma and death.


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS etc.).

Continued

INHALANTS:

Continued

  • Dangers

  • Death can result when high concentration replace oxygen

  • in the lungs suppressing the CNS causing breathing to

  • stop.

  • Brain damage from prolonged use.


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DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS etc.).

Continued

HALLUCINOGENS

Unlike the downward trends in use of most other illicit drugs, statistics indicate that the use of, and experimentation with, hallucinogens, (PCP & LSD), has increased significantly in recent years.


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PCP or Phyencyclidine is a synthetic drug. etc.).

- Called: Angel dust, rocket fuel, zombie, krystal joints etc.

LSD or Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is made from lysergic acid.

- Called: Acid, fry, microdot, white lightening etc.

Ecstasy or Methylenedioxy Methamphetamine.

- Called: X, XTC, disco biscuits, scoobie snacks.

Psilocybin is the active ingredient in the psilocybe mushroom.

- Called: Magic mushrooms, shrooms etc.

Peyote and Mescaline are active ingredients in peyote cactus.

- Called: Mesc, buttons etc.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

HALLUCINOGENS:

Continued


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Type of Drug etc.).

Hallucinogens distort a person’s sensation, thinking emotions

and perceptions.

How Taken

Consumed orally, injected, or inhaled into the nose.

Cigarettes also can be dipped into liquid PCP and smoked.

Effects

Distortion of reality, may report “seeing sounds”.

- May report “hearing colors”.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

HALLUCINOGENS:

Continued


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Dangers etc.).

Flashbacks - a recurrence of psychedelic effects after use of

of the drug ceases.

Severe mood swings and paranoia.

Impaired thinking and judgment leading to irrational behavior.

Unexpected and unexplained outbursts of violence.

Genetic changes.

Depression, sometimes coupled with suicidal tendencies.

DRUGS & THEIR AFFECTS

Continued

HALLUCINOGENS:

Continued


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Federal regulations may require it. etc.).

State regulations may require it.

Safety concerns.

The high costs of alcohol and other drug abuse.

Crime reduction.

Concerns over employee well-being.

Employment screening.

Reductions in Workers’ Compensation Premiums.

DRUG TESTING

Continued

THE PURPOSE OF DRUG TESTING:


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Pre-employment tests. etc.).

Reasonable suspicion and “for cause” tests.

Random tests.

Post-accident tests.

Post-treatment tests.

Promotion.

DRUG TESTING

Continued

TESTING SITUATIONS:


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Urine screens - measures leftover traces of drugs in urine.

Blood tests - measures actual amount of drug in the blood.

Breath alcohol tests - measure amount of alcohol in blood.

Saliva tests - still mostly experimental.

Hair tests - still mostly experimental.

DRUG TESTING

Continued

TYPES OF DRUG TESTS:


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Chain of Custody: Used to document handling and storage. urine.

Initial Screen: The first may not be accurate.

Confirmation Testing (92-98% accurate):

- A second test (GC/MS) is very accurate and will rule out any

false positives from the initial screen.

- GC/MS is 100% accurate from a scientific standpoint.

- For a test result to be reported as positive, both test results

must agree.

Medical Review Officer:

- The MRO is a licensed medical doctor who has special

training in the area of substance abuse.

DRUG TESTING

Continued

ARE DRUG TESTS ACCURATE?


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Medical Review Officer: urine.

- If the test is positive the MRO reviews the results.

- Ensures the chain of custody procedures were followed.

- Contacts the testee to make sure there are no medical or

other reasons a positive result.

Confidentiality is very important.

Drug test results will be kept private.

Only persons with a “need to know” will know the result.

DRUG TESTING

Continued

ARE DRUG TESTS ACCURATE?


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HELP urine.

HELP

HELP

YOU

EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS


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Internal/In-House Programs: urine.

- Most often found in large companies.

- EAP staff is employed by the company and works on-site.

Fixed-Fee Contracts:

- Employers contract directly with an EAP provider.

- Fees are usually based on the number of employees.

Fee-for Service Contracts:

- Employers contract directly with an EAP provider.

- Fees are based on individual referrals by the employer.

EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

Continued

TYPES OF EAPS:


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Consortia: urine.

- Multi-employers with a contract with an EAP provider.

- Generally cheaper with quality EAP services.

Peer-based Programs:

- Assistance is provided by co-workers and peers.

- Requires considerable education and training.

EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

Continued

TYPES OF EAPS:

Continued


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Assistance with policy development. urine.

Assistance with employee training and education.

They take the pressure off of supervisors and managers.

They offer an alternative to firing, saving recruiting costs.

They offer employees access to treatment.

They have been linked to decreases in Workers’ Comp. costs.

They assist employers in complying with drug-free workplace

laws.

EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

Continued

BENEFITS OF EAPS:

Continued


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Alcoholics Anonymous. urine.

Alateen (for children of the user).

Adult Children Of Alcoholics (ACOAs).

Narcotics Anonymous.

Nar-Anon (family and friends)

Drug Treatment Center

Cancer Society

Lung Associations

County or State Addiction or Mental Heath Agencies

County/Victim/Mental Health Hotlines

HELP

HELP

HELP

YOU

EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

Continued

LOCAL RESOURCES:


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