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Running head: A COMPARISON OF SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIORS
A Comparison of Sexual Risk Behaviors of Dominican Adolescents
in Their Homeland and in the United States
Florida International University
Barbara R. Kelley
Lynn M. Babington
Janyce G. Dyer
Florida International University
Running Head(APA, 2001, pp. 296, 306)
Title, Name, Institutional Affiliation (APA, 2001, pp. 296-
organization or subsections (should reflect major components of an assignment)
The purpose of paper is to provide a final report of a research practicuum experience
on a project, A Comparison of Sexual Risk Behaviors of Dominican Adolescents in
Their Homeland and in the United States. An overview of the study is provided
including time frame and funding sources. A critique of the study is presented
including (a) examination of strengths and weaknesses of the project, (b)
identification of enablers and barriers to implementation of the project, (c) discussion
of the outcomes expected from the project, and (d) evaluation of the overall
contribution of the project to nursing and health care. Specific examples and
rationale are offered. Finally, an evaluation of the role of the student research
assistant in relationship to the research project is presented.
The purpose of paper is to describe a participant observation experience at a Harley Davidson motorcycle festival. This analysis will include (a) a description of the event, (b) a discussion of how the observer felt "different" from and "connected" to the group during the experience, and (c) an identification of cultural values and beliefs underlying the event. Finally, implications of these values and beliefs for the provision of health care services for this population will be addressed.
Objectives: Dominican adolescents represent a rapidly growing population being
infected with HIV. The purpose of this paper is to compare the sexual risk
behaviors of adolescents in the D.R. and their Dominican counterparts in the U.S.
Methods: This secondary analysis was based on data from a larger study on risk
behaviors, self esteem, and social influences of Dominican adolescents. The
parent study used a cross-sectional, comparative design with data collection sites
in Las Matas, D.R. and Boston, U.S. Data on sexual risk behaviors were
collected using the 99-item 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Survey
data were collected from a convenience sample of 390 Dominican adolescents,
including 192 adolescents in the D.R. and 198 adolescents in the U.S.
Results: Although there were few differences between the two subsamples with
respect to sexual risk behaviors, differences in condom use and condom
accessibility as well as sources of HIV education were found.
Conclusions: Comparative and cross-cultural data are needed to further explain
observed differences in HIV infection rates, predict future trends in transmission,
and identify prevention and health educational needs unique to particular
populations and settings.
Example: Comprehensive AIDS care includes attention to (a) physical needs, (b) psychosocial concerns, and (c) social circumstances.
Example: To provide comprehensive AIDS care, the following steps must be taken:
1. The nurse conducts a comprehensive assessment.
2. The nurse develops a plan of care in collaboration with the patient and his/her family.
3. The nurse evaluates the outcomes of care on an ongoing basis.
Example: According to Patsdaughter (2004), “The HIV/AIDS epidemic has . . . reawakened our collective creativity” (p. 43).
Example: Patsdaughter, Dyer, and Riley-Eddins (2004) noted:
Nursing and health care education, practice, and
research are occurring within the context of
rapidly changing demographics and global
migration, a shift in health and illness patterns,
and an unstable economic environment with
limited resources. . . . The work of nursing and health care
professionals must now be culturally and socially responsive
and address contemporary calls to action. (p. 5)
Patsdaughter, O’Connor, Grindel, Taveira, and Mancusi (2001) argued that HIV counseling and testing services should link both seropositive and seronegative clients to care.
HIV counseling and testing services should link both seropositive and seronegative clients to care (Patsdaughter, O’Connor, Grindel, Taveira, & Mancusi, 2001)
Dyer, Patsdaughter, McGuinness, O’Connor, and DeSantis (2004) found . . .
It has been documented that the patient-provider relationship is critical for disenfranchised persons with HIV/AIDS (Dyer et al., 2004)
Example: Numerous works have addressed the unique issues and challenges in the lives of disenfranchised persons living with HIV/AIDS (Cameron, Patsdaughter, &
O\'Connor, 2000;Dyer et al., 2004; O\'Connor,
Medeiros, DeSantis, Patsdaughter, Casale, & Balram,
2004; Patsdaughter et al., 2001).
Example: ("AIDS Care," 1995)
Example: (C. A. Patsdaughter, personal communication, May 8, 2006)
Irwin, A., Millen, J., & Fallows, D. (2003). Global AIDS: Myths
and facts. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.
Patsdaughter, C. A. (2004). Bringing culture and creativity to the
forefront: The positive side of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Journal of Cultural Diversity, 11, 43.
Sabin, C. (2003). The relationships between ethnicity and
laboratory markers of HIV disease progression. In J. T.
Erwin, D. K. Smith, & B. S. Peters (Eds.), Ethnicity and
HIV: Prevention and care in Europe and the USA (pp. 103-
120). London: International MedicalPress.
Kay, J. (2005, September 1). Hurricane Katrina: A calamity compounded by poverty and neglect. Retrieved September 10, 2005, from http://www.asiantribune.com/show_article.php? id=2678
Shafer, J. (n.d.). Lost in the flood: Why no mention of race or class in TV\'s Katrina coverage? Retrieved September 10, 2005, from http://slate.msn.com/id /2124688/nav/tap2/
CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING
Centered Upper and Lowercase Heading
Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and
Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph
heading ending with a period.
One Level: Level 1
Two Levels: Level 1 and Level 3
Three Levels: Level 1, Level 3, and Level 4
Four Levels: Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, Level 4
Five Levels: Level 5, Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, Level 4
Overview of the Study
Critique of the Study
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Project
Enablers and Barriers to Implementation of the Project
Outcomes Expected from the Project
Overall Contribution of the Project to Nursing and Health Care
Evaluation of the Role of the Student Research Assistant
scientific writing is different than creative writing;
aim for clear, concise, logical communication
Examples: one and the same
in close proximity
the reason is because
make sure every word means exactly what you intend it to mean
a noun should follow this, that, these, and those
"more" should always be followed with "than"
("Ten-year-olds were more likely to play with age peers than were 8-year-olds."
Patsdaughter, O’Connor, Grindel, Taveira, and
Mancusi (2001) noted . . .
singular or plural)
or verb they modify
. . . acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
cf. compare i.e., that is
e.g., for example viz., namely
etc. and so forth vs. versus,
Percent (A.P.A., 2001 p. 140)
use % only when preceded by a number
use percentage when a number is not given
Statistical Presentation (see APA for specific tests)
whenever you report n, also report %
whenever you report M, also report SD
use figures to express:
(a) all numbers 10 and above
(b) all numbers below ten compared with numbers 10 and
(c) numbers that precede a unit of measurement
(d) numbers that represent time, dates, ages, scores, money
(e) numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered
series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a
list of four or more numbers
use words to express:
(a) numbers below 10
(b) any number that begins a sentence, title, or heading
(c) common fractions
preferred terms change
“person with . . . “
Demographic Characteristics of Sample (N = 661)
Age 34.31 9.97 18 – 78
Education 13.15 2.06 4 – 20
Less Than $1,000 139 21.0
$1,000 – $1,499 139 21.0
$1,500 – $1,999 122 18.5
$2,000 – $2,499 88 13.3
$2,500 – $2,999 47 7.1
$3,000 – $3,499 35 5.3
$3,500 or More 89 13.5
Not Reported 2 .3
(i.e., age, income,
Figure 1. Schematic model: Influence of select demographic variables,
self-esteem, and self-silencing on self-efficacy for negotiating
safer sex behaviors.