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APA (2001) Format. Typeface (APA, 2001, p. 285-286) 12-pt Times Roman 12-pt Courier no bold or fancy fonts Spacing (APA, 2001, p. 286) double-spacing (1 full line size between each line) do not quadruple space between headings (only double space throughout entire paper)

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apa 2001 format
APA (2001) Format

Typeface (APA, 2001, p. 285-286)

  • 12-pt Times Roman
  • 12-pt Courier
  • no bold or fancy fonts

Spacing (APA, 2001, p. 286)

  • double-spacing (1 full line size between each line)
  • do not quadruple space between headings (only double space throughout entire paper)

Margins (APA, 2001, p. 286-287)

  • Uniform margins of at least 1 inch at top, bottom, right, and left

Alignment (APA, 2001, p. 287)

  • do not right justify
  • do not divide (hyphenate) words at end of line
apa 2001 format2
APA (2001) Format

Order of Pages (APA, 2001, p. 287)

  • title page
  • abstract
  • text (begin p. 3 with title of paper)
  • references
  • appendixes
  • author notes
  • tables
  • figures

Dominican Adolescents 1


A Comparison of Sexual Risk Behaviors of Dominican Adolescents

in Their Homeland and in the United States

Carol A.Patsdaughter

Florida International University

Miami, FL

Barbara R. Kelley

Northeastern University

Boston, MA

Lynn M. Babington

Northeastern University

Boston, MA

Janyce G. Dyer

Florida International University

Miami, FL

Page Numbers and Page Headers(APA, 2001, pp. 288,


  • flush with right margin
  • first two or three words of title in upper and lower case letters
  • separate page number and page header by five spaces

Running Head(APA, 2001, pp. 296, 306)

  • flush with left margin
  • small h in Running head
  • abbreviated title (up to 50 characters) in capitalized letters

Title, Name, Institutional Affiliation (APA, 2001, pp. 296-

298, 306)

  • center of page
  • centered
  • upper and lower case letters
  • double spaced
Abstract (APA, 2001, pp. 12-15)
  • length and format varies but generally should not exceed 120 words
  • should be accurate, self-contained, concise and specific, nonevaluative, coherent and readable
  • background/significance


sources used

organization or subsections (should reflect major components of an assignment)


  • can be written before or after body of paper

Dominican Adolescent Study 2


The purpose of paper is to provide a final report of a research practicuum experience

on a project, A Comparison of Sexual Risk Behaviors of Dominican Adolescents in

Their Homeland and in the United States. An overview of the study is provided

including time frame and funding sources. A critique of the study is presented

including (a) examination of strengths and weaknesses of the project, (b)

identification of enablers and barriers to implementation of the project, (c) discussion

of the outcomes expected from the project, and (d) evaluation of the overall

contribution of the project to nursing and health care. Specific examples and

rationale are offered. Finally, an evaluation of the role of the student research

assistant in relationship to the research project is presented.


Participant Observation 2


The purpose of paper is to describe a participant observation experience at a Harley Davidson motorcycle festival. This analysis will include (a) a description of the event, (b) a discussion of how the observer felt "different" from and "connected" to the group during the experience, and (c) an identification of cultural values and beliefs underlying the event. Finally, implications of these values and beliefs for the provision of health care services for this population will be addressed.


Dominican Adolescents 2


Objectives: Dominican adolescents represent a rapidly growing population being

infected with HIV. The purpose of this paper is to compare the sexual risk

behaviors of adolescents in the D.R. and their Dominican counterparts in the U.S.

Methods: This secondary analysis was based on data from a larger study on risk

behaviors, self esteem, and social influences of Dominican adolescents. The

parent study used a cross-sectional, comparative design with data collection sites

in Las Matas, D.R. and Boston, U.S. Data on sexual risk behaviors were

collected using the 99-item 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Survey

data were collected from a convenience sample of 390 Dominican adolescents,

including 192 adolescents in the D.R. and 198 adolescents in the U.S.

Results: Although there were few differences between the two subsamples with

respect to sexual risk behaviors, differences in condom use and condom

accessibility as well as sources of HIV education were found.

Conclusions: Comparative and cross-cultural data are needed to further explain

observed differences in HIV infection rates, predict future trends in transmission,

and identify prevention and health educational needs unique to particular

populations and settings.

Series (APA, 2001, pp. 115-117, 292)
  • for series within a paragraph or sentence, use (a), (b), (c), and (d)

Example: Comprehensive AIDS care includes attention to (a) physical needs, (b) psychosocial concerns, and (c) social circumstances.

  • for series of separate sentences or paragraphs, use indented Arabic numeral followed by a period.

Example: To provide comprehensive AIDS care, the following steps must be taken:

1. The nurse conducts a comprehensive assessment.

2. The nurse develops a plan of care in collaboration with the patient and his/her family.

3. The nurse evaluates the outcomes of care on an ongoing basis.

Quotations (A.P.A., pp. 117-118, 292-293)
  • short quotes (i.e., fewer than 40 words) are incorporated into text and enclosed with quotation marks

Example: According to Patsdaughter (2004), “The HIV/AIDS epidemic has . . . reawakened our collective creativity” (p. 43).

  • long quotes (i.e., more than 40 words) are displayed in an indented double-spaced block with no quotation marks

Example: Patsdaughter, Dyer, and Riley-Eddins (2004) noted:

Nursing and health care education, practice, and

research are occurring within the context of

rapidly changing demographics and global

migration, a shift in health and illness patterns,

and an unstable economic environment with

limited resources. . . . The work of nursing and health care

professionals must now be culturally and socially responsive

and address contemporary calls to action. (p. 5)

  • quotes within quotes are enclosed in a single quotation mark (“ ‘ ‘ ”)
Always give page numbers for direct quotes. Plagarism is a violation of professional ethics (APA, 2001, pp. 349-350) and may result in failing a course or expulsion from the university!
  • Cite authors but do not give page numbers for ideas or materials that are paraphrased.


Patsdaughter, O’Connor, Grindel, Taveira, and Mancusi (2001) argued that HIV counseling and testing services should link both seropositive and seronegative clients to care.


HIV counseling and testing services should link both seropositive and seronegative clients to care (Patsdaughter, O’Connor, Grindel, Taveira, & Mancusi, 2001)

Multiple Authors
  • when a work has two authors, always cite both
  • when a work has three to five authors, cite all the first time; in subsequent citations, cite first author and "et al.“


Dyer, Patsdaughter, McGuinness, O’Connor, and DeSantis (2004) found . . .

It has been documented that the patient-provider relationship is critical for disenfranchised persons with HIV/AIDS (Dyer et al., 2004)

  • when a work has six or more authors, only cite first author and use et al. for first and subsequent citations
When you\'ve read several sources that support your position, use multiple citations to strengthen your argument. Group in alphabetical (not chronological) order and separate by semicolons.

Example: Numerous works have addressed the unique issues and challenges in the lives of disenfranchised persons living with HIV/AIDS (Cameron, Patsdaughter, &

O\'Connor, 2000;Dyer et al., 2004; O\'Connor,

Medeiros, DeSantis, Patsdaughter, Casale, & Balram,

2004; Patsdaughter et al., 2001).

  • When a work has no author, cite the first few words of the title or publication and the year.

Example: ("AIDS Care," 1995)

  • personal communication is cited in text but not included in references

Example: (C. A. Patsdaughter, personal communication, May 8, 2006)

All references cited in text must appear in reference list.
  • All references in reference list must appear in text.
  • References in reference list are alphabetized and double-spaced.


Irwin, A., Millen, J., & Fallows, D. (2003). Global AIDS: Myths

and facts. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.

Patsdaughter, C. A. (2004). Bringing culture and creativity to the

forefront: The positive side of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Journal of Cultural Diversity, 11, 43.

Sabin, C. (2003). The relationships between ethnicity and

laboratory markers of HIV disease progression. In J. T.

Erwin, D. K. Smith, & B. S. Peters (Eds.), Ethnicity and

HIV: Prevention and care in Europe and the USA (pp. 103-

120). London: International MedicalPress.

internet references
Internet references

Kay, J. (2005, September 1). Hurricane Katrina: A calamity compounded by poverty and neglect. Retrieved September 10, 2005, from http://www.asiantribune.com/show_article.php? id=2678

Shafer, J. (n.d.). Lost in the flood: Why no mention of race or class in TV\'s Katrina coverage? Retrieved September 10, 2005, from http://slate.msn.com/id /2124688/nav/tap2/

  • generally, only about a fourth (and certainly less than a half) of all references should be Internet references in professional papers
  • do not give web addresses for .pdf files obtained from electronic copies of print journals
  • limit use of lay and nonrefereed Internet sources
  • turn off hyperlink (blue, underlined) in reference list

Levels of Headings (A.P.A., 2001, pp. 113-115)


Centered Upper and Lowercase Heading

Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and

Lowercase Heading

Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side


Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph

heading ending with a period.

Level 5

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4


headings help improve readability

  • do not use a heading for the Introduction

One Level: Level 1

Two Levels: Level 1 and Level 3

Three Levels: Level 1, Level 3, and Level 4

Four Levels: Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, Level 4

Five Levels: Level 5, Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, Level 4










Title of Paper

Overview of the Study

Critique of the Study

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Project

Enablers and Barriers to Implementation of the Project

Outcomes Expected from the Project

Overall Contribution of the Project to Nursing and Health Care

Evaluation of the Role of the Student Research Assistant


Writing Style (APA, 2001, pp. 31-40)

  • orderly presentation of ideas (an outline may help)
  • smoothness and economy of expression

scientific writing is different than creative writing;

aim for clear, concise, logical communication

  • avoid jargon
  • avoid wordiness and redundancy

Examples: one and the same

in close proximity

completely unanimous

summarize briefly

the reason is because

  • vary sentence and paragraph length
  • avoid run on sentences
  • no paragraphs over one page long

Writing Style continued

  • precision and clarity

make sure every word means exactly what you intend it to mean


  • pronouns can be confusing

a noun should follow this, that, these, and those

  • comparisons

"more" should always be followed with "than"

("Ten-year-olds were more likely to play with age peers than were 8-year-olds."


Grammar (APA, 2001, pp. 40-61)

  • anything is print is past tense

Patsdaughter, O’Connor, Grindel, Taveira, and

Mancusi (2001) noted . . .

  • agreement of subject (i.e., noun) and verb (i.e.,

singular or plural)

  • avoid misplaced and dangling modifiers
  • adjectives and adverbs should be adjacent to the noun

or verb they modify

  • pronouns must be clear
  • use "both . . . and" instead of "both . . . as well as"
  • use "neither" with "nor" and "either" with "or"
  • not only . . . but (also) (see APA, 1994, p. 60)
  • elements in a series must be in parallel form

Abbreviations (APA., 2001, pp. 104-111)

  • write out on first use with abbreviation in parentheses

. . . acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

  • use Latin abbreviations only in parentheses (e.g., . . .)

cf. compare i.e., that is

e.g., for example viz., namely

etc. and so forth vs. versus,


Percent (A.P.A., 2001 p. 140)

use % only when preceded by a number

use percentage when a number is not given

Statistical Presentation (see APA for specific tests)

whenever you report n, also report %

whenever you report M, also report SD


Numbers (APA, 2001, pp. 122-130)

use figures to express:

(a) all numbers 10 and above

(b) all numbers below ten compared with numbers 10 and


(c) numbers that precede a unit of measurement

(d) numbers that represent time, dates, ages, scores, money

(e) numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered

series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a

list of four or more numbers

use words to express:

(a) numbers below 10

(b) any number that begins a sentence, title, or heading

(c) common fractions


Unbiased (Sensitive) Language (APA, 2001, pp. 61-


  • racial and ethnic identity

preferred terms change

  • gender (nonsexist language) (i.e., he/she)
  • disabilities ("nonhandicapping language")

“person with . . . “

  • age ("elderly" is not a noun; "older person" is preferred)


  • use spell check on word processors
  • proofread paper yourself and ask another person to

proofread it


Table 1

Demographic Characteristics of Sample (N = 661)


MSD Range

Age 34.31 9.97 18 – 78

Education 13.15 2.06 4 – 20

n %

Monthly Income

Less Than $1,000 139 21.0

$1,000 – $1,499 139 21.0

$1,500 – $1,999 122 18.5

$2,000 – $2,499 88 13.3

$2,500 – $2,999 47 7.1

$3,000 – $3,499 35 5.3

$3,500 or More 89 13.5

Not Reported 2 .3





(i.e., age, income,




Efficacy for





Safer Sex





Figure 1. Schematic model: Influence of select demographic variables,

self-esteem, and self-silencing on self-efficacy for negotiating

safer sex behaviors.