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WORK DESIGN PowerPoint PPT Presentation

HOW TO STRUCTURE THE JOBS TO BE EFFICIENT & SATISFYING? JOB REDESIGN POSSIBILITIES ... RECOGNIZE INDIVIDUAL NEED DIFFERENCES...NOT EVERYONE WANTS ENRICHED JOBS ...

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WORK DESIGN

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WORK DESIGN DECISIONS

  • WHAT ARE THE TASKS TO BE PERFORMED?

  • HOW SHOULD THEY BE COMBINED INTO JOBS?

  • HOW SHOULD THE JOBS BE PERFORMED?

    ANALYSIS & DESIGN OF WORK METHODS

    STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE

  • HOW SHOULD PEOPLE RESPOND TO THE JOB?

    ATTITUDES

    JOB SATISFACTION

    MOTIVATION

  • HOW TO STRUCTURE THE JOBS TO BE EFFICIENT & SATISFYING?


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JOB REDESIGN POSSIBILITIES

MAKING THE WORK LESS BORING & MORE INTERESTING

JOB DESIGNJOB SCOPEJOB DEPTH

APPROACH(VARIETY)(AUTONOMY)

JOB SPECIALIZATION LOW LOW

JOB ROTATIONINCREASES LOW

JOB ENLARGEMENTINCREASES LOW

AUTOMATION LOWINCREASES

JOB ENRICHMENTINCREASESINCREASES

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WALKER & GUEST (52) SATISFACTION ON THE ASSEMBLY LINE

SATISFIED WITH:DISSATISFIED WITH:

PAYMECHANICAL PACING OF THE LINE

WORKING CONDITIONSREPETITIVE NATURE OF THE WORK

QUALITY OF SUPERVISIONLOW SKILL REQMTS & DEMANDS

LIMITED SOCIAL INTERACTION

NO CONTROL OVER TOOLS, ETC

ONLY SEES A SMALL PART OF WORK


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TWO-FACTOR THEORYHERZBERG (59)

ASSUMPTIONS

TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF FACTORS INFLUENCE US…HYGIENES & MOTIVATORS

THE OPPOSITE OF SATISFACTION IS “NO SATISFACTION”

THE OPPOSITE OF DISSATISFACTION IS “NO DISSATISFACTION”

ONLY MOTIVATING FACTORS LEAD TO SATISFACTION

HYGIENES AT BEST LEAD TO NO DISSATISFACTION

HYGIENES (EXTRINSIC)MOTIVATORS (INTRINSIC)

WORKING CONDITIONSRESPONSIBILITY

COMPANY POLICIESCHALLENGE OF WORK

SUPERVISIORMEANINGFUL WORK

COWORKERSACHIEVEMENT

SALARY & BENEFITSACCOMPLISHMENT

STATUS SYMBOLSGROWTH OPPORTUNITIES

IMPLICATIONS

ABUNDANT HYGIENES DO NOT MOTIVATE WORKERS, THEY ONLY PREVENT DISSATISFACTION

ENRICH JOBS TO PROVIDE MOTIVATING, CHALLENGING WORK AND HIGH SATISFACTION

WEAKNESSES

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY IS FLAWED

DOESN’T RECOGNIZE INDIVIDUAL NEED DIFFERENCES…NOT EVERYONE WANTS ENRICHED JOBS

OVEREMPHASIZES JOB SATISFACTION


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JOB DESIGN THEORYHACKMAN & OLDHAM (76)

JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL

FIVE JOB DIMENSIONSPSYCHOLOGICAL STATES

SKILL VARIETY

TASK IDENTITYMEANINGFULNESS

TASK SIGNIFICANCE(Leads to high internal work motivation)

AUTONOMYPERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY

(Leads to high quality work & satisfaction)

FEEDBACK KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS

(Leads to high satisfaction & low turnover)

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EFFECTIVENESS IS MODERATED BY EMPLOYEE GROWTH-NEED STRENGTH

CALCULATE THE MOTIVATING POTENTIAL SCORE TO DETERMINE IF THE JOB NEEDS TO BE REDESIGNED

ARE YOUR WORKERS MOTIVATED BY INTRINSIC WORK FACTORS AND A STRONG NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (AN ENRICHED JOB)?


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HERZBERG’S VERTICAL LOADING FACTORS

(ACHIEVEMENT, GROWTH, RECOGNITION, RESPONSIBILITY)

ACCOUNTABILITY—Held responsible for performance

ACHIEVEMENT---Doing something worthwhile (Meaningful)

FEEDBACK---Gets direct performance information

WORK PACE---Able to set own work speed and rhythm

CONTROL OVER RESOURCES---Controls how and when to do the job

PERSONAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT---Opportunity to learn new skills

HACKMAN’S IMPLEMENTING CONCEPTS

(Create a sense of MEANINGFULNESS, RESPONSIBILITY, & KNOWLEDGE)

COMBINE TASKSSKILL VARIETY

FORM NATURAL WORK UNITSTASK IDENTITY

ESTABLISH CLIENT RELATIONSHIPSTASK SIGNIFICANCE

VERTICAL LOADINGAUTONOMY

OPEN FEEDBACK CHANNELSFEEDBACK

SUCCESS IS MODERATED BY THE INDIVIDUAL’S “GROWTH-NEED” STRENGTH

DOES THE INDIVIDUAL WANT AN “ENRICHED JOB?” ARE THEY HIGH “N-ACH?”


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CRITICISMS OF JOB ENRICHMENT(JOB REDESIGN)

  • HIGH COSTS

    • TRAINING, DUPLICATE EQUIPMENT, PLANT REDESIGN

  • SOME JOBS ARE ELIMINATED

    • FEWER OPERATIVES, SUPERVISORS NEEDED

  • ASSUMES WORKERS WANT RESPONSIBILITY, ETC.

    • WHAT ABOUT WORKERS WITH LOW “N-ACH?”

  • ENRICHMENT IS RELATIVE--EFFECTS MAY BE TEMPORARY

    • DO WE NEED OCCASIONAL “BOOSTER SHOTS” TO KEEP GOING?

  • SOME JOBS CAN’T BE ENRICHED

    • WHAT DO WE DO TO AVOID JEALOUSY?

  • USED AS A QUICK FIX FOR IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS

    • HAVE WE REALLY CHANGED OUR PHILOSOPHY OF MGMT?

  • IMPLEMENTED CHANGES ARE OFTEN WEAK & MODEST

    • COMPROMISES FROM WHAT WAS PLANNED

    • INNOVATIONS ARE ERODED & VANISH OVER TIME


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    WHEN MIGHT REDESIGN WORK?

    • WHEN NEW UNITS ARE FIRST ESTABLISHED

      NO PAST HISTORY TO DEAL WITH

      NEW FACILITIES AND WORKERS

    • WHEN THE SYSTEM BECOMES UNSTABLE

      (Seizing the opportunity!)

      TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE

      CHANGE IN SENIOR MANAGEMENT

      NEW PRODUCT OR SERVICE INTRODUCED

      LEGISLATIVE OR REGULATORY CHANGES

      FLUCTUATIONS IN THE ECONOMY OR ENVIRONMENT

      3.WHEN THE IMMEDIATE MANAGER WANTS IT

      LOCAL CHANGES (JUST WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT)

      MICRO REDESIGN

      MANAGEMENT MUST BE COMMITTED TO A NEW PHILOSOPHY


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    FLEXIBILITY & WORKER CONTROL

    WORK SCHEDULE FLEXIBILITY

    1.COMPRESSED WORK WEEK

    WORKER FATIGUE

    ISSUE OF OVERTIME

    DIFFICULTIES IN WORK SCHEDULING

    2.FLEXTIME

    SUPERVISION & COORDINATION IS MORE DIFFICULT

    ADEQUATE COVERATE OF WORK---HOW TO SCHEDULE?

    JOBS THAT REQUIRE ALL TO BE PRESENT

    3.JOB SHARING / PART-TIME WORK

    COORDINATING WITH OTHER WORKERS

    INCREASED COST OF BENEFITS

    4.TELECOMMUTING

    NO CONTACTS WITH OTHER WORKERS—NO COORDINATION

    NO SUPERVISION—NOT EASY TO GET HELP WHEN NEEDED

    HOW PRODUCTIVE ARE YOU WHEN WORKING AT HOME?

    ISSUE OF LIABILITY WHEN WORK IS DONE AT HOME


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    FLEXIBLE BENEFIT PLANS(CAFETERIA BENEFIT PLANS)

    TYPES OF FLEXIBLE PLANS

    CORE

    MODULAR ( BASE + PACKAGES)

    FLEXIBLE SPENDING ACCOUNTS

    HEALTH SAVINGS ACCOUNTS

    ADVANTAGES

    CAPS OR CONTAINS BENEFIT COSTS

    RAISES CONSCIOUSNESS RE: BENEFIT COSTS

    PROVIDES WORKERS ONLY THE BENEFITS THEY DESIRE

    LIMITATIONS

    COST OF BENEFITS FLUCTUATES (ADVERSE SELECTION)

    PEOPLE MAKE IRRESPONSIBLE DECISIONS

    IRS RULINGS & TAX LIABILITY ISSUES

    BOOKKEEPING & ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES


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