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Sun. first quarter moon. Sun. Earth. third quarter moon. Tide Variations. full moon. new moon. Earth. Spring tide: lunar and solar tides add together …so highs very high, lows very low. Neap tide: lunar and solar tides opposite, thus no additive effect

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Sun

first quarter moon

Sun

Earth

third quarter moon

Tide Variations

full moon

new moon

Earth

Spring tide: lunar and solar tides add together

…so highs very high, lows very low

Neap tide: lunar and solar tides opposite, thus no additive effect

…so highs close to lows

Note: tides exaggerated!

distance to sun underestimated!

diagram not to scale!


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Exaggerating Depths

The thickness of this black line is 2 times the depth of the Mariana Trench and would also easily contain Mount Everest…more than all of the surface relief of the Earth!

Earth Diameter: 12,756 km

Mount Everest: 8.848 km

Average Ocean Depth: Pacific 4.028 km

Atlantic 3.926

Indian 3.963

Arctic 1.205

In fact, the black line would encompass both the depth of the Mariana Trench and also the Troposphere above it!

Maximum Ocean Depth: Pacific 11.033 km

Atlantic 9.219

Indian 7.455

Arctic 5.625

Atmosphere: 75% found in

Troposphere 11.272 km

Moon

3, 478 km

Line Thickness: 26.247 km

distance from Earth: 103 moon diameters!


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Mean High Water

Mean Low Water

Extreme Low Water

Tidal Zones

Supralittoral Zone

Splash

Supralittoral Fringe

Extreme High Water

Extremes at Spring Tides

Littoral Zone

Midlittoral Zone

Because San Salvador is located near the equator, the Littoral Zone may be quite thin, so wave height may be more important to organisms in the Littoral and Supralittoral Fringe

Infralittoral Fringe

Infralittoral Zone

Limestone Marine Rock or Sloped Sandy Bottom


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This tide table is provided from irbs.com/tides/calendar/month/4962.html?y=2007&m=5&d=22

San Salvador (Watling Island), Bahamas 24.05° N, 74.55° W

All tides in ft relative to an index level…All times are EDT

2.02

2.38

1.91

1.71

1.60

1.56

1.58

1.70

1.77

1.84

1.86

1.60

Tide Table May-June 2007

Tidal Flux H-L

spring

neap

spring-neap

=0.82 ft

= 9.8 in

spring

Comment: May-June Water Temperature 77-80°F = 25-26.6°C

Shallow near-shore water may be warmer!


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OceanicIslandEcology

Ecology: study of organisms in environment


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Where We Are…

  • Oceanic Island Forms

  • Provides Rich Habitat Diversity

  • Has Climate and Environmental Factors

  • Now we need the Organisms!


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Trophic Pyramid

3° Consumer - Carnivore

feeding on Carnivores

2° Consumer

Carnivore

Numbers

Biomass

Energy

1° Consumer

Herbivore

Producer

Photosynthesis


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Show Green Reefs Movie Here


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Critical Thinking About This Video

The theme was: the reef is green because of overfishing.

Science decisions are based on objective evidence.

What was the evidence for “greening”? Did you see green?

What fish were you shown swimming on the reef?

Dr. Booth has visited San Salvador over some 30 years…what did he tell you about groupers?what did he tell you about long-spined sea urchin numbers?

What did you NOT see in this video that you should have seen if over-fishing were a problem?

Are there other explanations for lack of herbivores?

Are there other explanations for algal overgrowth?

Are we fertilizing the algae?

What else is in the fertilizer?

The very contagious white pox coral disease is caused by Serratia marcescens found in human feces.

Is the problem on San Salvador really overfishing or something more complex?


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Trophic Pyramid

3° Consumer - Carnivore

feeding on Carnivores

2° Consumer

Carnivore

Numbers

Biomass

Energy

1° Consumer

Herbivore

Producer

Photosynthesis

from?


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Trophic Funnel!

Energy

Biomass

Numbers

Producer

Photosynthesis

1° Consumer

Herbivore

2nd Law of

Thermodynamics

2° Consumer

Carnivore

So this is a leaky funnel!

3° Consumer - Carnivore

feeding on Carnivores


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Photosynthesis

Light Energy

CO2 + H2O

O2 + CH2O

chlorophyll

carbon dioxide + water

oxygen + carbohydrate

Food for

Consumers!

Primary Producers:

Plants, Algae, Cyanobacteria


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Trophic Calendar!

Colonize and Establish Large Population

Food Supply for Ecosystem

Habitats for Others

Time

Producer

Photosynthesis

Population of

Generalists

1° Consumer

Herbivore

Small Pop

2° Consumer

Carnivore

3° Consumer - Carnivore

feeding on Carnivores


The forest meet l.jpg

Liberally adapted from: David W. Goldsmith. 2003. The great clade race: presenting cladistic thinking to biology majors and general science students. The American Biology Teacher 65: 679-682.

Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge

The Forest Meet

  • This game is a cross-country meet in a forest

  • All runners enter the forest by a single south entrance

  • The finish line is the northern boundary of the forest

  • Runners need not exit at any particular place at the finish

  • There are many trails through the woods

    • Trails only bifurcate (form two branches) at forks

    • Trails never join together or rejoin after forking

  • Along the trail straightaways are check-in stations

  • At each check-in station, an official has a unique stamp

  • Each runner has a card that is stamped as s/he passes a station

  • Runners are not allowed to retrace a path

  • All runners must finish the race

Start


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Bob



Sue

♠

Jen♥

Deb

Lou♥

Cal

Hal

Val♣♠

11. Using these stamp cards handed in at the finish line:

  • Sketch the trail map

  • Show all station locations (on the straightaways)

  • Mark the exit used by each runner


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Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge

The Forest Meet

Sharing our Results

Since all the cards have the circle stamp, it must have been issued at a station in the first part of the trail system, so that each runner would pass it.

Start


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The Forest Meet

Sharing our Results


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The Forest Meet

Sharing our Results


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The Forest Meet

Sharing our Results


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Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge

The Forest Meet

Five of the runners passed the teardrop station, but three did not, so our 8 runners must have divided into two groups

Sharing our Results

Bob, Deb, Cal

Sue, Lou, Jen, Hal, Val

Start


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The Forest Meet

Sharing our Results


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Hal

Runners can finish anywhere along this northern edge

The Forest Meet

Because paths do not rejoin, Hal is separated and thus we can draw him at the finish line

Four runners of the group of five passed the diamond station, but Hal did not, so he split away before this station

Sharing our Results

Sue, Lou, Jen, Val

Bob, Deb, Cal

Sue, Lou, Jen, Hal, Val

Start


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Bob

Cal

Deb

Hal

Jen

Lou

Sue

Val

The Forest Meet

Notice the runners are in alphabetical order. But this is not the only solution

All branches can be rotated:

e.g.: Lou before Jen

Sue-Val before Jen-Lou

Start


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Translating the Forest Meet to Evolution on an Island

The forest represents the time-space continuum on the island

Time is shown by the runners moving from south to north

The entrance represents an arrival of a pioneer colonizer on-island

The north finish line represents the present time

The names at the finish line represent extant organisms on-island

The meet cards represent the phenotypes of extant organisms

The stamp marks are the genotype changes leading to phenotype

The branching trails show adaptive radiation (speciation) pathways

The shared marks are the synapomorphies (shared derived traits) you used to determine the evolutionary pathways

You carried out a cladistic analysis…

intuitively with very little help from me.

Congratulations!


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How do you DO cladistics?

  • Look at a group of organisms that you think are related

  • Find a not-too-distantly related (primitive?) out-group

  • Select characters that will help to distinguish the organisms

  • Polarize the character states by:

    • Stratigraphic sequence (fossil sequence)

    • Developmental sequence (ontogeny recaps phylogeny)

    • Outgroup comparison

  • Build a data matrix

  • Group by number of synapomorphies (shared derived)

  • Sketch possible cladograms

  • Seek simplest (most parsimonious) cladogram


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OG

E

B

A

C

D

Asian

Oahu Kauai Hawaii Maui Kauai

E

B

A

D

C

-- 2

Large

Black

Wide

Wide

Dark

Wide

Long

Long

Thick

Long

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

2

1

1

3

2

5

1

2

3

5

-- 3

-- 7

-- 8

-- 5

-- 1

OG

-- 9

-- 4

-- 10

-- 6


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Asia Kauai Oahu Maui Hawaii

OG E B A D C

-- 2 black eye

-- 7 long wing

-- 3 wide neck

-- 8 long leg

-- 5 dark body

-- 1 large eye

-- 9 thick leg

-- 4 wide body

-- 6 wide wing

-- 10 long stinger


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