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What we can learn from Asia Pacific War. The Significance of Peace and Human Solidarity. Koji Nakamura, Professor of International Education, Konan University, Japan: koji@konan-u.ac.jp

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What we can learn from asia pacific war the significance of peace and human solidarity l.jpg

What we can learn from Asia Pacific War. The Significance of Peace and Human Solidarity

  • Koji Nakamura,Professor of International Education, Konan University, Japan: koji@konan-u.ac.jp

  • “A classroom is not diminished if students and professors regard one another as “whole” human beings, striving not just for knowledge in books, but knowledge about how to live in the world.” ( hooks: 1994)


Facts fatality of wars refugees street children and child labor l.jpg

Facts: Fatality of Wars, Refugees, Street Children and Child Labor

  • The fatality of The World War II :

  • 65 millions (40millions were civilians)

  • The fatality of wars after the World War II:

  • 25millions

  • The number of Refugees today:

  • 26millions (60% are childrenand women)

  • Street Children: 30 millions、

  • Child Labor: 246millions

  • Child Solders:800000

  • 40000 children under the age of 5 are dying of preventable causes every day.

  • WHO、UNDP(1997)


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How many wars have we been engaged in since 1945 ?(152)

  • There were 55 wars and armed conflictsin Africa, 36 in Asia, 25 in Latin America, 23 in Middle East and 13 in Europe since 1945.

  • (Peace Pledge Union :2005)

  • Tragically26 wars and armed conflicts are still going on even today. The total death toll in wars and armed conflicts between 1945-2000 stands at 50-51 million(Leitenberg Center for International and Security Studies, university of Maryland 2005)


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Was Japan a peace-loving country? The question of Japanese Pacifism 

Japan’s long periods of peace:

  • Heian Period (794-1156) 362 years (Peace)

  • Edo Period (1603-1867) 264 years (Peace)

  • Meiji to Showa (1894-1945) 49 years (Militarism) : The way toGreat East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

    1868—1894--1904—1910--1931—1932—1933—

    1937—1938—1940--1941—1942--1945

  • After World War II (1945--) 61 years (Peace)


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What was Asia-Pacific War? History

  • 1894 First Sino-Japanese War 日清戦争

  • 1904~5 Russo-Japanese War日露戦争

  • 1910Japan Annexed Korea日韓併合

  • 1931 Japanese Kwantung Army seized Manchuria

  • 1932 Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo満州国

  • 1933 Japan withdrawd from League of Nations

  • 1937- 1945 War with China 日中戦争

  • 1938 Nanking Massacre南京虐殺

  • 1940 Tripartite Pact made with Germany and Italy

  • 1941 Japan attacked US (Pearl Harbor) Pacific War

  • 1942 Battle of Midway

  • 1945 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and

  • Nagasaki and Japan surrendered unconditionally

  • Asia-pacific War (1931-1945) 1905-1945 (Militarism)


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Most large cities in Japan were devastated by the carpet bombing in 1945.


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Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?

  • In July 1941, the Japanese military invaded southern Indochina. In reaction, the US, then Great Britain and the Netherlands, announced an embargo on all exports to Japan and froze Japanese assets and stopped banking within their borders.

  • The American embargo was a response to the situation in Europe. US was concerned about the Tripartite Pact.

    American Mirror, Japan (1948) by Dr. Helen Mears

    The Rise of Modern Japan 2003 (University of Hawaii)


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Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?

  • Japanese expansion into Southeast Asia—the location of the colonies of France, Great Britain, and Netherlands-was a threat to the Allies. The Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) was very rich in oil, a strategic resource.

  • The embargo took Japan by surprise. Furthermore, Japan felt frustrated because it had few natural resources. 80 percent of oil had come from US.

    5 The only way Japan could survive as a world power was to invade the Indonesia and take over its oil fields. Because this action was certain to provoke an American counterattack, the Japanese military believed that Japan had to attack America first so as to gain a strategic advantage.

    6. Japanese people became nationalistic obsessed by the illusion of Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere in order to justify their invasion

  • See American Mirror , Japan (1948) by Dr. Helen Mears

  • The Rise of Modern Japan 2003 (University of Hawaii)


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Why did USA drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

  • Causes and Effects

  • Discussion

  • Can Hiroshima and Nagasaki become a point of departure for Peace?


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Could Japan avoid the Atomic Bombs? Historical background of Japan’s surrender

  • 1945 July 26Potsdam Declaration. (13 conditions)

  • Truman, Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek warned Japan that it must make a choice: Japan’s unconditional surrender, or utter destruction of Japan. This proposal was backed by the successfully tested atomic bomb in the Sates and promise from the Soviet Union to enter the war against Japan.

  • July 27 Prime Minister Suzuki’s response was to keep silent (to see what would happen. Also they worried about the fate of the Emperor. However, Suzuki’s response was translated into, “ ignore” by the Allied, which gave President Truman a good reason to use the atomic bomb on Japanese large cities and Churchill (UK) agreed with it.


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Historical background of Japan’s surrender

  • August 6, Atomic bombing on Hiroshima (150000 died)

  • August 8 Soviet Union declared war against Japan and attacked Manchuria

  • August 9, Atomic bombing on Nagasaki (75000died)

  • August 9At the Supreme Council, the top civilian and military leaders voted twice on the surrender question. Both time it became three to three.

  • August 14 Finally, the emperor choose the unconditional surrender to save Japan and Japanese people.

  • August 15The Emperor announced the unconditional surrender on radio.

  • September 2 Allied Powered nations signed the surrender document that formally ended the war on the American battle ship USS Missouri.

  • 1945 September 2-The Allied (American) Occupation 6年

  • 1951 September 8 Prime Minister Yoshida signed San Francisco Peace Treaty with 48 nations. The treaty at last restored Japan’s independence.


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Why did USA drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

  • 1. To end the Pacific War.

  • 2. To save American soldiers

  • 3. To save Japanese citizens

  • 4. To show off US nuclear power to Soviet Union and the world

  • 5. To prove the destructive power of the nuclear weapon

  • 6. American Orientalism

  • 7. To have superior position in the world after the war.


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Nagasaki:August 9, 1945,11:02 a.m.


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Hiroshima: August 6, 1945, am. 7:31


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Hiroshima right after the Atomic Bombing


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Hiroshima Before the Atomic Bomb


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Hiroshima After the Atomic Bomb


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Hiroshima Peace Memorial Dome


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Poems written by victims of Atomic Bombs

  • An Atomic Bomb

  • “When an atomic bomb falls

  • A day becomes a night.

  • People become ghosts.”

  • -Hatsumi Sakamoto, 9ears old.

  • "I will write peace on your wings and you will fly all over the world."- Sadako Sasaki


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Give Back Peace

Give back father, give back mother,Give back grandpa, give back grandma,Give back boys, give back girls.

Give me back myself, give me back men Linked to me.

As long as men live as men,Give back peace, Peace that never crumbles.

by Sankichi TogeJapan (1917-1953)


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Peace Declaration (August 6, 2001)

  • We demand that our national government forge the will to abolish nuclear weapons and, in accordance with the preamble of our constitution, work with Hiroshima in the effort to create a century of peace and humanity.

  • On this first August sixth of the twenty-first century, it is by vowing to spread the peace of this moment through the entire twenty-first century and throughout the world that we pay our sincerest respects to the souls of all the atomic bomb victims.

  • Tadatoshi Akiba, Mayor of Hiroshima


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Our Fragile earth devastated by Nuclear Tests and WarsKorten (1999) states that it is now our time to accept responsibility for our freedom or perish as a species that failed to find its place of service in the web of life.


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The number of nuclear warheads in 2002Stockholm International Peace Research

  • Country Strategic Non Strategic Total

  • US 648011207600

  • Russia 495133808331

  • UK185185

  • France 348348

  • China282120402

  • India(30-35)*

  • Pakistan(24-48)*

  • Israel(200)*

  • Total 12246462017150

  • Potential Nuclear warheads36800


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Survive or Perish?This is a point of departure for International Education.

  • Korten (1999) states that it is now our time to accept responsibility for our freedom or perish as a species that failed to find its place of service in the web of life.

  • Whether we will be able to survive asbrothers and sisterswith a sense of human solidarity, or perish asstrangers preoccupiedwith enormous, aimless competition, ignorance and indifference depends on global citizenship education for peace for the future generation.

  • (Nakamura:2005)


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Military Expenditure of the World

  • The US spent $5.5 trillion for developing nuclear weapons between

    1940 to 1996

  • The world spent $750 billion on weapons every year. (UNDP:1994)

  • The world has spent $ 35 trillion on conventional weapons.

  • The US’s military budget in 2004 is about $ 300 billion and $330 billion in 2005

  • (State of the world 2004)


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The Voice from Edward SaidLecture at Cairo Univ. in 2003

  • You cannot deal with others without profound knowledge of his or her culture, society and history.

  • Force never works, because you can never destroys the will of people and the power of people.

  • Idea is equality, coexistence and sustainable life.

  • The present is our battle ground and knowledge is our main weapons.

  • (Said:2003)


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Necessary Skills for Peace Education

  • Communication with active listening

  • Reconciliationby integrating opposed ideas

  • Harmony and cooperation

  • Critical thinking and problem-solving

  • Empathy and compassion

  • Patience and self-control

  • Media literacy with critical views

  • Leadership and membership

  • Mediation and negotiation

  • Conflict resolution …………………………


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A SUGGESTIONfor peaceful coexistence

  • To be accepted we must accept others (students).

  • To be respected we must respect others (students).

  • To be loved we must love others (students).


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From Democratic Society to Solidarity Society

1 Step= A Democratic Society

  • Constitution and law to guarantee and protect liberty、Democratic government (Fair representation)

  • Equal opportunity for education and work

    2 Step= A Pluralistic Society

  • Multiculturalism

  • Coexistence of multiracial and multi-religious people

    3 Step= An Open Society

  • Guarantee of citizenship for foreigners, immigrants, immigration, exchange and fair trade

    4 Step= A Solidaric Society

    Supranational and Transnational bodies to protect human security.

    The more we accept the differences, the more united we become.


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The components of global literacy

1 Cultural literacy(basic cultural competence and skills to live in one’s home culture with her/his cultural identity)

2Cross-cultural literacy(competence and skills to adjust between one’s home culture and a target culture)

3Multi-cultural literacy(cultural sensitivity and skills to live responsibly in cultural diversity, reconciling cultural differences and integrating opposing cultural values in a multicultural and interdependent world)


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The component ofglobal literacy

4 Delicate balance of one’s personal, cultural, national and global identifications and roles

(competence to accept and balance pluralistic/dual/multiple identities)

5 Communicative competence in EIL for global communication

(communication skills to create a peaceful and

equitable symbiosis)

6Awareness as a global citizen to participate in solving global and human problems

(awareness of global village concern for equitable participation and problem-solving competence as a new reframing global concept)


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武士道Japanese Chivalry (Bushido) The seven Moral Code

  • Bushido is based on the harmony of Zen Buddhism and Shintoism which emphasizes loyalty, respect for ancestor, filial piety and 惻隠の情(Consideration for enemies and the weak).

  • Rectitude 義Respect 尊敬

  • Courage  勇 Benevolence 仁

  • Honor   名誉Honesty  誠

  • Loyalty   忠

  • (See the Sword and Chrysanthemum 1946 by Ruth Benedict and Bushido, The Soul of Japan 1900 by Inazo Nitobe


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Further Reading

  • Boulding, E. (1988). Building a Global Civic Culture:

  • Education for an Interdependent World.New York:

  • Syracuse University Press.

  • Hayden, M and Thompson J (eds) (2001). International

  • Education: Principles and Practice. London: Kogan Page

  • Hernandez, H. (2001) Multicultural Education: A Teacher’s

  • Guide to Liking Context, Process, and Content. New

  • Jersey: MerrillPrentice Hall.

  • Keving W. ed. (2000). Education Now : Break the cycle of

  • poverty, Oxford, Oxfam International.

  • Korten, D. (1990). Getting to the 21st Century: Voluntary

  • Action and the Global Agenda. Connecticut: Kumarian

  • Press, Inc.

  • Nakamura, K (2004). Fostering Global Literacy among

  • Japanese University Students through Global Citizenship

  • Education. The Journal of the Institute for Language and

  • Culture, Konan University.8, 1-29.

  • Nakamura, K. (2002) Developing Global Literacy through

  • English as an International Language (EIL) Education in

  • Japan. International Education Journal Vol.3, No.5, 2002.

  • WCCES Commission 6 pp.63-74.


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Further Reading

  • Nakamura, K. (1997). Benedict’s Trans-cultural View

  • Beyond Orientalism: An Inter/Cross-Cultural Lesson for

  • the21st Century. The Journal of the Institute for

  • Language and Culture, Konan University. 1, 6-20.

  • Rohlen. T. & LeTendre G. (1998). Teaching and Learning in

  • Japan. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

  • Rohlen, T. (1983). Japan’s High Schools. Berkeley and Los

  • Angels: University of California Press.

  • Steiner Henry & Alston Philip. (2000). International Human

  • Rights in Context: Law Politics Morals. Oxford. Oxford

  • University Press.

  • Steiner, M. (1996) (Ed.), Developing the Global Teacher:

  • Theory and Practice in Initial Education. Stoke-on Trent:

  • Trentham Books.

  • Steiner, M (1996). I prefer to see myself as a Global

  • Citizen’: How student teachers can learn to teach for

  • justice. Developing the Global Teacher. Stoke-on Trent:

  • Trentham Books.

  • White, M. (1987) The Japanese Educational challenge: A

  • Commitment to Children. New York: Macmillan Inc.


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Further Reading

  • Nakamura, K. (1997). Benedict’s Trans-cultural View

  • Beyond Orientalism: An Inter/Cross-Cultural Lesson for

  • the21st Century. The Journal of the Institute for

  • Language and Culture, Konan University. 1, 6-20.

  • Rohlen. T. & LeTendre G. (1998). Teaching and Learning in

  • Japan. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

  • Rohlen, T. (1983). Japan’s High Schools. Berkeley and Los

  • Angels: University of California Press.

  • Steiner Henry & Alston Philip. (2000). International Human

  • Rights in Context: Law Politics Morals. Oxford. Oxford

  • University Press.

  • Steiner, M. (1996) (Ed.), Developing the Global Teacher:

  • Theory and Practice in Initial Education. Stoke-on Trent:

  • Trentham Books.

  • Steiner, M (1996). I prefer to see myself as a Global

  • Citizen’: How student teachers can learn to teach for

  • justice. Developing the Global Teacher. Stoke-on Trent:

  • Trentham Books.

  • White, M. (1987) The Japanese Educational challenge: A

  • Commitment to Children. New York: Macmillan Inc.


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太平洋戦争15年戦争の第3段階

  • 戦争中、日本は太平洋戦争を大東亜戦争と公称

     太平洋戦争は日中戦争の延長線上にあり、中国、東南アジア諸国、米国、豪州まで戦域に含む戦争であったことから、アジア・太平洋戦争とも称す。

  • 1931年日本の広東軍が柳条湖での満州鉄道爆破事件(実際は広東軍参謀の陰謀)を理由に中国侵略。翌年満州国を樹立(15年戦争の第1段階。日本は満州事変と呼ぶが、日本の中国侵略開始。

  • 日中戦争は1937年盧溝橋事件を契機とする日本の全面的な中国侵略戦争。15年戦争の第2段階。1931年から1945年までの15年戦争を日本の一方的な侵略戦争と理解できる。


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太平洋戦争の背景 1

  • 1 日本と米国だけの戦争ではなく、日本は中国、米国、英国、ソ連オランダ、オーストラリア、ニュージーランドを中心とする連合国を中心とする多くの国と戦争を交えた。

  • 2 大日本帝国は資源確保と領土拡大のために中国、朝鮮半島、台湾、マレーシア、シンガポール、インドネシア、フィリピン、ビルマ、ベトナム、スマトラ、ニューギニア、ソロモン諸島を侵略。

  • 大東亜共栄圏の名の下に東南アジア諸国に対しアジアでの共存共栄、白人の人種差別撤廃、新政権独立支援などを掲げ、東南アジアを侵略統治した。(イギリス・フランス・オランダの東南アジア植民地支配から日本植民地主義の支配下に変更)インドのガンジーは日本の植民地主義拡大を批判

  • 3 米国はすべての軍事力を連合軍諸国に無償で

  • 貸し、当時の日米の軍事力の差は1:30と言われた。


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太平洋戦争の背景 2

  • 2 米国は日本の中国侵略を止めさせたかった。

  • 米国は日本への石油の禁輸。昭和15年米国から日本への鉄の全面的輸出禁止、米国内の日本人の財産凍結

  • 中国、イギリス、オランダも米国と共同歩調し、

  • ABCD包囲陣で対抗

  • 3 ABCD包囲陣と日独伊枢軸国の対立

  •  日独伊はブロックを拡大を進めた。日独伊三国同盟1940

  •  日本は中国と東南アジア

  •  ドイツは東欧諸国と旧ソ連

  •  イタリアはエチオピアとアルバニア

  • まさに第2次世界大戦の構図である。1939年9月1日

  • ドイツのポーランドへ侵攻、翌日の9月2日英仏がドイツに宣戦布告


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太平洋戦争の背景 3

  • 4 真珠湾奇襲攻撃 1941年 12月8日午前3時半

  • 宣戦布告なしの奇襲(宣戦の通告は在米日本大使館の怠慢で55分遅れる。その結果日本は国際法上永遠に批判される。)

  • 5 軍部、特に陸軍の暴走に対し、当時の政治家と官僚、外務省が機能せず。第三次近衛内閣総辞職、東条英機首相が陸軍大臣を兼務 (海軍は南進を主張、陸軍は北進を主張)

  • 開戦当初は日本の攻撃爆撃機であるゼロ戦の優れた性能、新型魚雷の威力、パイロットの優れた操縦能力などで応戦。

  • 当時の国民は言論の自由がなく、挙国一致体制で、国民は疲弊した。日本軍は敗北の事実を隠し、国民は真相を知らされなかった。

  • 6 日本近海での決戦のための巨大な戦艦大和、武蔵を作ったが、レーダーを駆使した米軍の空母と戦闘機によりミッドウエイ海戦で壊滅。その後、ガダルカナル、竜王島、沖縄で日本軍が全滅。さらに、東京大空襲(B29爆撃機による19万発で一夜に10万人が死亡。最後に広島・長崎に原爆が投下された。広島の死者総数は20万人、長崎は7万人。日本は連合国に対し無条件降伏。東京裁判


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終戦日の解釈

  • 日本では8月15日天皇の玉音放送で無条件降伏を宣言し、終戦記念日としたが、戦勝国や世界は9月2日を終戦日とみなしている。ポツダム宣言受諾の意を表明した。

  • この段階ではソ連は終戦と認めず、満州にいた60万以上の日本兵をシベリアへ抑留し、強制労働をさせた。10万人以上の兵士が戦後犠牲者となりシベリアで死んだ。

  • ソ連は北海道をソ連の領土として主張し、東日本社会主義人民共和国とに分裂する可能性もあったが、米国の大統領トルーマンが拒否。

  • 9月2日に戦艦ミズリー号で外務大臣の重光葵全権団が戦勝国9カ国と日本は調印を行って、正式に日本の太平洋戦争が終わった。欧米では9月2日を終戦と考える。


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戦後のない日本兵

  • 終戦後すぐに、マレー半島は英国、ベトナムはフランス、インドネシアはオランダにより、再び植民地化された。

  • 戦後も現地の日本兵は現地の義勇軍に参加し、独立運動に参加して、戦死した者も多い。

  • インドネシアでは1000人が現地人の妻と結婚し、インドネシア人として住み着いた。1000名が独立戦争に参加。1000名が戦死。1000名が帰国。ビルマ、ベトナムでも同じようなことが起こった。


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パレスチナ問題の歴史的背景1

  • ユダヤ教、キリスト教、イスラム教の三大宗教の聖地「エルサレム」は本来ヘブライ語で平和の都の意味がある。

  • 三大宗教の聖地がエルサレムに集中 

  • 本来ユダヤ教・キリスト教・イスラム教では創世記のアダムからアブラハムまでの起源がほぼ同じである。

  • すべて一神教である。


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パレスチナ問題の歴史的背景2

  • 紀元前1020年頃イスラエル王国をユダヤ人の王であるダビデ(David)が建設。

  • モーゼがシナイ山で神からもらった十戒の石版を安置した。

  • 後に息子のソロモン王がモリヤの丘(旧約聖書の創世記に記されたアブラハムが息子のイサクを犠牲に捧げようとした地)に神殿を建て、紀元前960年頃に聖地となった。


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パレスチナ問題の歴史的背景33大宗教の聖地エルサレム

  • その後バビロン捕囚があり、ローマ軍により破壊があったがユダヤ人の聖地になった。

  • キリスト教徒にとってはエルサレムはイエスが十字架にかけられ、復活した場所であり,キリスト教信仰の起源がある。

  • イスラム教徒も預言者モハメッドがエルサレムに向かって礼拝していた。イスラム教典のコーランにはモハメッドが亡くなる時、モハメッドは翼のある天馬でエルサレムに旅し,そこで昇天した。

  • 以後エルサレムは1099年から十字軍により1世紀はキリスト教徒に独占されたが、その後はイスラム教徒の聖地となった。


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反ユダヤ主義

  • 広くユダヤ人に対する差別・反感・憎しみ・迫害。ヘレニズム・ローマ時代からキリスト教中世を経て、現在に至るまで存在する。

  • キリスト教徒にとってはユダヤ人がイエスキリストを十字架にかけて、ローマの総督ピラトの意に反し、イエスの死を求めたことへの怒り。

  • ユダヤ教の選民主義

  • イスラム教・キリスト教は民族・人種を超えて布教されたが、ユダヤ教はユダヤ人が契約の民、神から選ばれた民として強い民族的なアイデンテイテイを持っていたことへの反発。


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シオニズム運動 Zionism

  • パレスチナにユダヤ人国家を建設しようとする運動。19世紀に興起し、国家再建を求めて、帰還するユダヤ人が増えた。

  • 第2時世界大戦ではナチスのユダヤ人への迫害のため、ユダヤ人の多くがパレスチナや米国へ移住。

  • 国なき民が差別と迫害と恐怖の中で国家を再建しようとするのは当然。

  • 問題はイスラム教徒のアラブ人が住んでいる

  • パレスチナの地に移住してきたこと。


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イスラエル国家建設と中東戦争

  • 1915年イギリスの高等弁務官アーサー・マクマホンがアラブ人にトルコへの軍事的反抗を条件に中近東の領土を与えると約束。

  • 1917年、第1次世界大戦においてユダヤ人科学者ハイムがイギリスのために新型爆弾を開発し、そのお礼に当時の英国外務大臣のバルフォアがパレスチナにユダヤ人国家建設を約束(バルフォア宣言)

  • 英国の二枚舌と言われる。


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イスラエル国家建設と中東戦争

  • その後アラブ人の住んでいたパレスチナにユダヤ人が多く移住し、混乱が続く。

  • 英国は両者から批判され、1947年国際連盟にパレスチナ問題を委ねる。

  • パレスチナが国際連盟により分割され、

  • 100万人のパレスチナ難民が生じる。

  • 1948年英国軍がパエスチナから撤退すると、

  • テルアビルにてイスラエルが独立宣言

  • その翌年の1949年から独立に納得しないアラブ諸国が反発し、第1次中東戦争が起こる。

  • 1973年第4次中東戦争まで続く。


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その後の中東の歴史

  • 1978年ホメイニ氏を中心にイラン革命

  • 1980-1988 イラン・イラク戦争

  • イラクのイスラムシーア派の革命への介入

  • この時米国はイラクを大量の武器で応援

  • 1990年イラクのクエート侵攻 40日間

  • 2003年ーイラク戦争


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