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What we can learn from Asia Pacific War. The Significance of Peace and Human Solidarity

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What we can learn from Asia Pacific War. The Significance of Peace and Human Solidarity

  • Koji Nakamura,Professor of International Education, Konan University, Japan: koji@konan-u.ac.jp

  • A classroom is not diminished if students and professors regard one another as whole human beings, striving not just for knowledge in books, but knowledge about how to live in the world. ( hooks: 1994)


Facts: Fatality of Wars, Refugees, Street Children and Child Labor

  • The fatality of The World War II :

  • millions (4millions were civilians)

  • The fatality of wars after the World War II:

  • millions

  • The number of Refugees today:

  • millions (60% are childrenand women)

  • Street Children: 30 millions

  • Child Labor: 246millions

  • Child Solders:800000

  • 40000 children under the age of 5 are dying of preventable causes every day.


How many wars have we been engaged in since 1945 ?(152)

  • There were 55 wars and armed conflictsin Africa, 36 in Asia, 25 in Latin America, 23 in Middle East and 13 in Europe since 1945.

  • (Peace Pledge Union :2005)

  • Tragically26 wars and armed conflicts are still going on even today. The total death toll in wars and armed conflicts between 1945-2000 stands at 50-51 million(Leitenberg Center for International and Security Studies, university of Maryland 2005)


Was Japan a peace-loving country? The question of Japanese

Japans long periods of peace:

  • Heian Period (794-1156) 362 years (Peace)

  • Edo Period (1603-1867) 264 years (Peace)

  • Meiji to Showa (1894-1945) 49 years (Militarism) : The way toGreat East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

    18681894--19041910--193119321933

    193719381940--19411942--1945

  • After World War II (1945--) 61 years (Peace)


What was Asia-Pacific War? History

  • 1894 First Sino-Japanese War

  • 1904~5 Russo-Japanese War

  • 1910Japan Annexed Korea

  • 1931 Japanese Kwantung Army seized Manchuria

  • 1932 Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo

  • 1933 Japan withdrawd from League of Nations

  • 1937- 1945 War with China

  • 1938 Nanking Massacre

  • 1940 Tripartite Pact made with Germany and Italy

  • 1941 Japan attacked US (Pearl Harbor) Pacific War

  • 1942 Battle of Midway

  • 1945 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and

  • Nagasaki and Japan surrendered unconditionally

  • Asia-pacific War (1931-1945) 1905-1945 (Militarism)


Most large cities in Japan were devastated by the carpet bombing in 1945.


Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?

  • In July 1941, the Japanese military invaded southern Indochina. In reaction, the US, then Great Britain and the Netherlands, announced an embargo on all exports to Japan and froze Japanese assets and stopped banking within their borders.

  • The American embargo was a response to the situation in Europe. US was concerned about the Tripartite Pact.

    American Mirror, Japan (1948) by Dr. Helen Mears

    The Rise of Modern Japan 2003 (University of Hawaii)


Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?

  • Japanese expansion into Southeast Asiathe location of the colonies of France, Great Britain, and Netherlands-was a threat to the Allies. The Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) was very rich in oil, a strategic resource.

  • The embargo took Japan by surprise. Furthermore, Japan felt frustrated because it had few natural resources. 80 percent of oil had come from US.

    5 The only way Japan could survive as a world power was to invade the Indonesia and take over its oil fields. Because this action was certain to provoke an American counterattack, the Japanese military believed that Japan had to attack America first so as to gain a strategic advantage.

    6. Japanese people became nationalistic obsessed by the illusion of Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere in order to justify their invasion

  • See American Mirror , Japan (1948) by Dr. Helen Mears

  • The Rise of Modern Japan 2003 (University of Hawaii)


Why did USA drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

  • Causes and Effects

  • Discussion

  • Can Hiroshima and Nagasaki become a point of departure for Peace?


Could Japan avoid the Atomic Bombs? Historical background of Japans surrender

  • 1945 July 26Potsdam Declaration. (13 conditions)

  • Truman, Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek warned Japan that it must make a choice: Japans unconditional surrender, or utter destruction of Japan. This proposal was backed by the successfully tested atomic bomb in the Sates and promise from the Soviet Union to enter the war against Japan.

  • July 27 Prime Minister Suzukis response was to keep silent (to see what would happen. Also they worried about the fate of the Emperor. However, Suzukis response was translated into, ignore by the Allied, which gave President Truman a good reason to use the atomic bomb on Japanese large cities and Churchill (UK) agreed with it.


Historical background of Japans surrender

  • August 6, Atomic bombing on Hiroshima (150000 died)

  • August 8 Soviet Union declared war against Japan and attacked Manchuria

  • August 9, Atomic bombing on Nagasaki (75000died)

  • August 9At the Supreme Council, the top civilian and military leaders voted twice on the surrender question. Both time it became three to three.

  • August 14 Finally, the emperor choose the unconditional surrender to save Japan and Japanese people.

  • August 15The Emperor announced the unconditional surrender on radio.

  • September 2 Allied Powered nations signed the surrender document that formally ended the war on the American battle ship USS Missouri.

  • 1945 September 2-The Allied (American) Occupation 6

  • 1951 September 8 Prime Minister Yoshida signed San Francisco Peace Treaty with 48 nations. The treaty at last restored Japans independence.


Why did USA drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

  • 1. To end the Pacific War.

  • 2. To save American soldiers

  • 3. To save Japanese citizens

  • 4. To show off US nuclear power to Soviet Union and the world

  • 5. To prove the destructive power of the nuclear weapon

  • 6. American Orientalism

  • 7. To have superior position in the world after the war.


Nagasaki:August 9, 1945,11:02 a.m.


Hiroshima: August 6, 1945, am. 7:31



Hiroshima Before the Atomic Bomb


Hiroshima After the Atomic Bomb


Hiroshima Peace Memorial Dome


Poems written by victims of Atomic Bombs

  • An Atomic Bomb

  • When an atomic bomb falls

  • A day becomes a night.

  • People become ghosts.

  • -Hatsumi Sakamoto, 9ears old.

  • "I will write peace on your wings and you will fly all over the world."- Sadako Sasaki


Give Back Peace

Give back father, give back mother,Give back grandpa, give back grandma,Give back boys, give back girls.

Give me back myself, give me back men Linked to me.

As long as men live as men,Give back peace, Peace that never crumbles.

by Sankichi TogeJapan (1917-1953)


Peace Declaration (August 6, 2001)

  • We demand that our national government forge the will to abolish nuclear weapons and, in accordance with the preamble of our constitution, work with Hiroshima in the effort to create a century of peace and humanity.

  • On this first August sixth of the twenty-first century, it is by vowing to spread the peace of this moment through the entire twenty-first century and throughout the world that we pay our sincerest respects to the souls of all the atomic bomb victims.

  • Tadatoshi Akiba, Mayor of Hiroshima


Our Fragile earth devastated by Nuclear Tests and WarsKorten (1999) states that it is now our time to accept responsibility for our freedom or perish as a species that failed to find its place of service in the web of life.


The number of nuclear warheads in 2002Stockholm International Peace Research

  • Country Strategic Non Strategic Total

  • US 648011207600

  • Russia 495133808331

  • UK185185

  • France 348348

  • China282120402

  • India(30-35)

  • Pakistan(24-48)

  • Israel(200)

  • Total 12246462017150

  • Potential Nuclear warheads


Survive or Perish?This is a point of departure for International Education.

  • Korten (1999) states that it is now our time to accept responsibility for our freedom or perish as a species that failed to find its place of service in the web of life.

  • Whether we will be able to survive asbrothers and sisterswith a sense of human solidarity, or perish asstrangers preoccupiedwith enormous, aimless competition, ignorance and indifference depends on global citizenship education for peace for the future generation.

  • (Nakamura:2005)


Military Expenditure of the World

  • The US spent $5.5 trillion for developing nuclear weapons between

    to 1996

  • The world spent $ billion on weapons every year. UNDP)

  • The world has spent $ 35 trillion on conventional weapons.

  • The USs military budget in 2004 is about $ 300 billion and $330 billion in 2005

  • (State of the world 2004)


The Voice from Edward SaidLecture at Cairo Univ. in 2003

  • You cannot deal with others without profound knowledge of his or her culture, society and history.

  • Force never works, because you can never destroys the will of people and the power of people.

  • Idea is equality, coexistence and sustainable life.

  • The present is our battle ground and knowledge is our main weapons.

  • (Said:2003)


Necessary Skills for Peace Education

  • Communication with active listening

  • Reconciliationby integrating opposed ideas

  • Harmony and cooperation

  • Critical thinking and problem-solving

  • Empathy and compassion

  • Patience and self-control

  • Media literacy with critical views

  • Leadership and membership

  • Mediation and negotiation

  • Conflict resolution


A SUGGESTIONfor peaceful coexistence

  • To be accepted we must accept others (students).

  • To be respected we must respect others (students).

  • To be loved we must love others (students).


From Democratic Society to Solidarity Society

1 Step= A Democratic Society

  • Constitution and law to guarantee and protect libertyDemocratic government (Fair representation)

  • Equal opportunity for education and work

    2 Step= A Pluralistic Society

  • Multiculturalism

  • Coexistence of multiracial and multi-religious people

    3 Step= An Open Society

  • Guarantee of citizenship for foreigners, immigrants, immigration, exchange and fair trade

    4 Step= A Solidaric Society

    Supranational and Transnational bodies to protect human security.

    The more we accept the differences, the more united we become.


The components of global literacy

1 Cultural literacy(basic cultural competence and skills to live in ones home culture with her/his cultural identity)

2Cross-cultural literacy(competence and skills to adjust between ones home culture and a target culture)

3Multi-cultural literacy(cultural sensitivity and skills to live responsibly in cultural diversity, reconciling cultural differences and integrating opposing cultural values in a multicultural and interdependent world)


The component ofglobal literacy

4 Delicate balance of ones personal, cultural, national and global identifications and roles

(competence to accept and balance pluralistic/dual/multiple identities)

5 Communicative competence in EIL for global communication

(communication skills to create a peaceful and

equitable symbiosis)

6Awareness as a global citizen to participate in solving global and human problems

(awareness of global village concern for equitable participation and problem-solving competence as a new reframing global concept)


Japanese Chivalry (Bushido) The seven Moral Code

  • Bushido is based on the harmony of Zen Buddhism and Shintoism which emphasizes loyalty, respect for ancestor, filial piety and (Consideration for enemies and the weak).

  • e

  • HonorHonesty

  • Loyalty

  • (See the Sword and Chrysanthemum 1946 by Ruth Benedict and Bushido, The Soul of Japan 1900 by Inazo Nitobe


Further Reading

  • Boulding, E. (1988). Building a Global Civic Culture:

  • Education for an Interdependent World.New York:

  • Syracuse University Press.

  • Hayden, M and Thompson J (eds) (2001). International

  • Education: Principles and Practice. London: Kogan Page

  • Hernandez, H. (2001) Multicultural Education: A Teachers

  • Guide to Liking Context, Process, and Content. New

  • Jersey: MerrillPrentice Hall.

  • Keving W. ed. (2000). Education Now : Break the cycle of

  • poverty, Oxford, Oxfam International.

  • Korten, D. (1990). Getting to the 21st Century: Voluntary

  • Action and the Global Agenda. Connecticut: Kumarian

  • Press, Inc.

  • Nakamura, K (2004). Fostering Global Literacy among

  • Japanese University Students through Global Citizenship

  • Education. The Journal of the Institute for Language and

  • Culture, Konan University.8, 1-29.

  • Nakamura, K. (2002) Developing Global Literacy through

  • English as an International Language (EIL) Education in

  • Japan. International Education Journal Vol.3, No.5, 2002.

  • WCCES Commission 6 pp.63-74.


Further Reading

  • Nakamura, K. (1997). Benedicts Trans-cultural View

  • Beyond Orientalism: An Inter/Cross-Cultural Lesson for

  • the21st Century. The Journal of the Institute for

  • Language and Culture, Konan University. 1, 6-20.

  • Rohlen. T. & LeTendre G. (1998). Teaching and Learning in

  • Japan. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

  • Rohlen, T. (1983). Japans High Schools. Berkeley and Los

  • Angels: University of California Press.

  • Steiner Henry & Alston Philip. (2000). International Human

  • Rights in Context: Law Politics Morals. Oxford. Oxford

  • University Press.

  • Steiner, M. (1996) (Ed.), Developing the Global Teacher:

  • Theory and Practice in Initial Education. Stoke-on Trent:

  • Trentham Books.

  • Steiner, M (1996). I prefer to see myself as a Global

  • Citizen: How student teachers can learn to teach for

  • justice. Developing the Global Teacher. Stoke-on Trent:

  • Trentham Books.

  • White, M. (1987) The Japanese Educational challenge: A

  • Commitment to Children. New York: Macmillan Inc.


Further Reading

  • Nakamura, K. (1997). Benedicts Trans-cultural View

  • Beyond Orientalism: An Inter/Cross-Cultural Lesson for

  • the21st Century. The Journal of the Institute for

  • Language and Culture, Konan University. 1, 6-20.

  • Rohlen. T. & LeTendre G. (1998). Teaching and Learning in

  • Japan. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

  • Rohlen, T. (1983). Japans High Schools. Berkeley and Los

  • Angels: University of California Press.

  • Steiner Henry & Alston Philip. (2000). International Human

  • Rights in Context: Law Politics Morals. Oxford. Oxford

  • University Press.

  • Steiner, M. (1996) (Ed.), Developing the Global Teacher:

  • Theory and Practice in Initial Education. Stoke-on Trent:

  • Trentham Books.

  • Steiner, M (1996). I prefer to see myself as a Global

  • Citizen: How student teachers can learn to teach for

  • justice. Developing the Global Teacher. Stoke-on Trent:

  • Trentham Books.

  • White, M. (1987) The Japanese Educational challenge: A

  • Commitment to Children. New York: Macmillan Inc.




  • ABCD






  • (David)




Zionism





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