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The catering cycle. Figure 1.1 After Cracknell et al . 2000. Comparison of traditional and systems approaches. Table 1.1 Source:  Records and Glennie (1991). Three systems in food and beverage operations. Operations hierarchy. Table 1.2. Dimensions of the hospitality industry’s product.

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the catering cycle
The catering cycle

Figure 1.1

After Cracknell et al. 2000

comparison of traditional and systems approaches
Comparison of traditional and systems approaches

Table 1.1

Source: Records and Glennie (1991)

dimensions of the hospitality industry s product
Dimensions of the hospitality industry’s product
  • Intangibility
  • Perishability
  • Simultaneous production and consumption
  • Ease of duplication
  • Heterogeneity
  • Variability of output
  • Difficulty of comparison
customer satisfactions
Customer satisfactions
  • Physiological needs
  • Economic needs
  • Social needs
  • Psychological needs
  • Convenience needs
customer dissatisfactions
Customer dissatisfactions
  • Controllable by the establishmente.g. scruffy, unhelpful staff, cramped conditions
  • Uncontrollablee.g. behaviour of other customers, the weather,transport problems
reasons for eating out
Reasons for eating out
  • Convenience
  • Variety
  • Labour
  • Status
  • Culture / tradition
  • Impulse
  • No choice
meal experience factors
Meal experience factors
  • Food and drink on offer
  • Level of service
  • Level of cleanliness and hygiene
  • Perceived value for money and price
  • Atmosphere of the establishment
pestle factors
PESTLE factors
  • P Political
  • E Economic
  • S Socio-cultural
  • T Technological
  • L Legal
  • E Ecological
the five competitive forces
The five competitive forces

Figure 1.4  

Adapted with the permission of The Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1985, 1998 by Michael E. Porter

customer service versus resource productivity
Customer service versus resource productivity

Customer service Resource productivity

Figure 1.7

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