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The catering cycle


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The catering cycle. Figure 1.1 After Cracknell et al . 2000. Comparison of traditional and systems approaches. Table 1.1 Source:  Records and Glennie (1991). Three systems in food and beverage operations. Operations hierarchy. Table 1.2. Dimensions of the hospitality industry’s product.

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The catering cycle

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The catering cycle l.jpg

The catering cycle

Figure 1.1

After Cracknell et al. 2000


Comparison of traditional and systems approaches l.jpg

Comparison of traditional and systems approaches

Table 1.1

Source: Records and Glennie (1991)


Three systems in food and beverage operations l.jpg

Three systems in food and beverage operations


Operations hierarchy l.jpg

Operations hierarchy

Table 1.2


Dimensions of the hospitality industry s product l.jpg

Dimensions of the hospitality industry’s product

  • Intangibility

  • Perishability

  • Simultaneous production and consumption

  • Ease of duplication

  • Heterogeneity

  • Variability of output

  • Difficulty of comparison


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Customer satisfactions

  • Physiological needs

  • Economic needs

  • Social needs

  • Psychological needs

  • Convenience needs


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Customer dissatisfactions

  • Controllable by the establishmente.g. scruffy, unhelpful staff, cramped conditions

  • Uncontrollablee.g. behaviour of other customers, the weather,transport problems


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Reasons for eating out

  • Convenience

  • Variety

  • Labour

  • Status

  • Culture / tradition

  • Impulse

  • No choice


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Meal experience factors

  • Food and drink on offer

  • Level of service

  • Level of cleanliness and hygiene

  • Perceived value for money and price

  • Atmosphere of the establishment


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PESTLE factors

  • PPolitical

  • EEconomic

  • SSocio-cultural

  • TTechnological

  • LLegal

  • EEcological


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The five competitive forces

Figure 1.4  

Adapted with the permission of The Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1985, 1998 by Michael E. Porter


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European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model

Figure 1.6  

Adapted from EFQM, 1999


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Customer service versus resource productivity

Customer service Resource productivity

Figure 1.7


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Integrated Service QualityManagement Model

Figure 1.8