The catering cycle
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The catering cycle. Figure 1.1 After Cracknell et al . 2000. Comparison of traditional and systems approaches. Table 1.1 Source:  Records and Glennie (1991). Three systems in food and beverage operations. Operations hierarchy. Table 1.2. Dimensions of the hospitality industry’s product.

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The catering cycle l.jpg
The catering cycle

Figure 1.1

After Cracknell et al. 2000


Comparison of traditional and systems approaches l.jpg
Comparison of traditional and systems approaches

Table 1.1

Source: Records and Glennie (1991)




Dimensions of the hospitality industry s product l.jpg
Dimensions of the hospitality industry’s product

  • Intangibility

  • Perishability

  • Simultaneous production and consumption

  • Ease of duplication

  • Heterogeneity

  • Variability of output

  • Difficulty of comparison


Customer satisfactions l.jpg
Customer satisfactions

  • Physiological needs

  • Economic needs

  • Social needs

  • Psychological needs

  • Convenience needs


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Customer dissatisfactions

  • Controllable by the establishmente.g. scruffy, unhelpful staff, cramped conditions

  • Uncontrollablee.g. behaviour of other customers, the weather,transport problems


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Reasons for eating out

  • Convenience

  • Variety

  • Labour

  • Status

  • Culture / tradition

  • Impulse

  • No choice


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Meal experience factors

  • Food and drink on offer

  • Level of service

  • Level of cleanliness and hygiene

  • Perceived value for money and price

  • Atmosphere of the establishment


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PESTLE factors

  • P Political

  • E Economic

  • S Socio-cultural

  • T Technological

  • L Legal

  • E Ecological


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The five competitive forces

Figure 1.4  

Adapted with the permission of The Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., from Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance by Michael E. Porter. Copyright © 1985, 1998 by Michael E. Porter


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European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence Model

Figure 1.6  

Adapted from EFQM, 1999


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Customer service versus resource productivity

Customer service Resource productivity

Figure 1.7


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Integrated Service QualityManagement Model

Figure 1.8


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