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CD, DVD and Sound cards CD drives Overview optical drive: laser shines on disc and transition from land to pit. pits and bumps : less reflection (.12microns deep and .06 microns wide). spiral: (3 miles long, over 2 billion pits) Types CD-ROM : read only (metallic film with real pits)

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PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CD' - Sophia


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Cd drives l.jpg
CD drives

  • Overview

    • optical drive: laser shines on disc and transition from land to pit.

    • pits and bumps: less reflection (.12microns deep and .06 microns wide).

    • spiral: (3 miles long, over 2 billion pits)

  • Types

    • CD-ROM : read only (metallic film with real pits)

    • CD-R :write once (heats the metal and dye together)

    • CD-RW: up to 1,000 times (alloy changes with heat)

  • Capacities:650 and 700 MB

  • Speeds: 24 x = 3,600 KBps, 52x = 7,800 KBps


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DVD drives

  • Overview

    • also an optical drive

    • higher capacity than CDs

      • up to 133 minutes of video

      • data capacity:

        • DVD-5, single-sided, single-layered, 4.7 GB

        • DVD-9, single-sided, double-layered, 8.5 GB

        • DVD-10, double-sided, single-layered, 9.4 GB

        • DVD-18, double-sided, double-layered, 17 GB

  • Types

    • DVR-R - read only, 4.7 GB

    • DVR-RW - 1,000 times, 4.7 GB, work in DVD players

    • DVD+RW - other format, becoming predominant

    • DVD+RW - both formats

DVD-RAM?


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CD and DVD

  • Interfaces

    • EIDE (ATAPI)

      • enable DMA in controller

      • BIOS configuration, jumpers

      • connect to sound card

    • SATA, SCSI, USB

  • Recording CDs and DVDs

    • File systems

      • ISO 9660 Level 1 - old, 8.3 format

      • ISO 9660 Level 2 - file names up to 30

      • Joliet - extension of ISO, up to 64, multisession

      • Mount Rainer - in XP , drive needs to support


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CD and DVD

  • Recording CDs and DVDs

    • Windows vs.third-party

    • Multisession writing - write in more than one session

    • making data CDs/DVDs bootable

    • Finalizing - closing the disc, can only be read after this

    • buffer underrun: recording CD/DVD faster than source

    • remember the alphabet soup for media types

    • More on burning CDs/DVDs

  • New standard for DVDs

    • HD DVD vs. Blu-ray

  • Installing CDs/DVDs


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Sound cards

  • Basic sound concepts

    • What is sound? Measuring sounds: decibel (dB)

    • sampling rates and human hearing (20 Hz to 20 kHz)

      • digital audio: DAC converters, PCM

      • sampling rate: signal measured many times per second

      • sampling rate: at least twice as the highest frequency

      • 44.1 kHz: CD quality

      • 22.05 kHz radio quality

      • 11.025 kHz telephone quality

    • amplitude

      • 8 bits => 48 dB, 256 values for each sample

      • 16 bits => 96 dB (CDs use it), 64K values for each sample

      • 24 bits => 144 dB (pain threshold 125 dB), 16.8 million values


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Sound cards

  • Audio formats

    • basic types: aiff, au, wav, qt, ra, wma, mp3

    • audio codec and audio compression: lossy (11:1) and lossless (2:1).

    • Uncompressed sound files size (1 minute)

      • 44kHz 16 bits => 10 MB

      • 44kHz 24 bits => 33 MB

    • Compressed using MP3 : 4 minutes => 4 MB (one song)

  • Sound players

    • Microsoft media player

    • Real player

    • QuickTime player


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Sound cards

  • Sound card basics

    • overview : DAC, DSP, memory, ROM (wavetable), I/O

    • specifications:

      • ISA or PCI cards: 8, 16, 24 bits for each sampling

      • voices: multiple notes, from 32 to 64 voices

      • FM and wavetable: hardware and software support

      • Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): % , as low as .004%

      • Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR): in dB, cassette 60 dB, CD 100dB

      • Input and output connections: CD, microphone, speaker(s), MIDI, S/PDIF, FireWire, USB, TAD

  • Installing and upgrading

    • a tutorial

  • Sound cards future?

    • X-Fi or motherboard


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