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CD, DVD and Sound cards CD drives Overview optical drive: laser shines on disc and transition from land to pit. pits and bumps : less reflection (.12microns deep and .06 microns wide). spiral: (3 miles long, over 2 billion pits) Types CD-ROM : read only (metallic film with real pits)

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cd drives
CD drives
  • Overview
    • optical drive: laser shines on disc and transition from land to pit.
    • pits and bumps: less reflection (.12microns deep and .06 microns wide).
    • spiral: (3 miles long, over 2 billion pits)
  • Types
    • CD-ROM : read only (metallic film with real pits)
    • CD-R :write once (heats the metal and dye together)
    • CD-RW: up to 1,000 times (alloy changes with heat)
  • Capacities:650 and 700 MB
  • Speeds: 24 x = 3,600 KBps, 52x = 7,800 KBps
dvd drives
DVD drives
  • Overview
    • also an optical drive
    • higher capacity than CDs
      • up to 133 minutes of video
      • data capacity:
        • DVD-5, single-sided, single-layered, 4.7 GB
        • DVD-9, single-sided, double-layered, 8.5 GB
        • DVD-10, double-sided, single-layered, 9.4 GB
        • DVD-18, double-sided, double-layered, 17 GB
  • Types
    • DVR-R - read only, 4.7 GB
    • DVR-RW - 1,000 times, 4.7 GB, work in DVD players
    • DVD+RW - other format, becoming predominant
    • DVD+RW - both formats

DVD-RAM?

cd and dvd
CD and DVD
  • Interfaces
    • EIDE (ATAPI)
      • enable DMA in controller
      • BIOS configuration, jumpers
      • connect to sound card
    • SATA, SCSI, USB
  • Recording CDs and DVDs
    • File systems
      • ISO 9660 Level 1 - old, 8.3 format
      • ISO 9660 Level 2 - file names up to 30
      • Joliet - extension of ISO, up to 64, multisession
      • Mount Rainer - in XP , drive needs to support
cd and dvd5
CD and DVD
  • Recording CDs and DVDs
    • Windows vs.third-party
    • Multisession writing - write in more than one session
    • making data CDs/DVDs bootable
    • Finalizing - closing the disc, can only be read after this
    • buffer underrun: recording CD/DVD faster than source
    • remember the alphabet soup for media types
    • More on burning CDs/DVDs
  • New standard for DVDs
    • HD DVD vs. Blu-ray
  • Installing CDs/DVDs
sound cards
Sound cards
  • Basic sound concepts
    • What is sound? Measuring sounds: decibel (dB)
    • sampling rates and human hearing (20 Hz to 20 kHz)
      • digital audio: DAC converters, PCM
      • sampling rate: signal measured many times per second
      • sampling rate: at least twice as the highest frequency
      • 44.1 kHz: CD quality
      • 22.05 kHz radio quality
      • 11.025 kHz telephone quality
    • amplitude
      • 8 bits => 48 dB, 256 values for each sample
      • 16 bits => 96 dB (CDs use it), 64K values for each sample
      • 24 bits => 144 dB (pain threshold 125 dB), 16.8 million values
sound cards7
Sound cards
  • Audio formats
    • basic types: aiff, au, wav, qt, ra, wma, mp3
    • audio codec and audio compression: lossy (11:1) and lossless (2:1).
    • Uncompressed sound files size (1 minute)
      • 44kHz 16 bits => 10 MB
      • 44kHz 24 bits => 33 MB
    • Compressed using MP3 : 4 minutes => 4 MB (one song)
  • Sound players
    • Microsoft media player
    • Real player
    • QuickTime player
sound cards8
Sound cards
  • Sound card basics
    • overview : DAC, DSP, memory, ROM (wavetable), I/O
    • specifications:
      • ISA or PCI cards: 8, 16, 24 bits for each sampling
      • voices: multiple notes, from 32 to 64 voices
      • FM and wavetable: hardware and software support
      • Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): % , as low as .004%
      • Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR): in dB, cassette 60 dB, CD 100dB
      • Input and output connections: CD, microphone, speaker(s), MIDI, S/PDIF, FireWire, USB, TAD
  • Installing and upgrading
    • a tutorial
  • Sound cards future?
    • X-Fi or motherboard
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