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Planning for Water Reuse in Northeastern Illinois (and other places where most people think there is an abundant water supply) Illinois Waste Management and Research Center March 12, 2008 Paul Anderson, CAEE Department, IIT Acknowledgments Partners Illinois Institute of Technology

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Planning for Water Reuse in Northeastern Illinois (and other places where most people think there is an abundant water supply)

Illinois Waste Management and Research Center

March 12, 2008

Paul Anderson, CAEE Department, IIT


Acknowledgments l.jpg
Acknowledgments

  • Partners

    • Illinois Institute of Technology

    • Illinois Waste Management and Research Center

    • Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning

  • Sponsors

    • US EPA Science to Achieve Results Program

    • Illinois Waste Management and Research Center

  • Who does all the work

    • Sachin Pradhan

    • Yi Meng

    • Shihui Luo

    • Feng Huang


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Overview

  • Parts of NE Illinois are running out of water

  • Water reuse is part of the solution

  • Industries have hydrologic footprints

  • Issues that affect reuse planning

  • An integrated reuse system


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NE Illinois: Growing demand for water

Dziegielewski et al. (2005)


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We don’t use water very efficiently

Domestic water use (USEPA, 2006)


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Unknown resources

Falling water table

Minimum flow requirements

Limited by Supreme Court decree

NE Illinois: Limited water sources

Northeastern Illinois regional non-cooling water source allocation (NIPC, 2001)


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The Illinois Diversion

Lake Michigan

54%

2 WPPs

N.B. Chicago River

Users

Reuse

Combined

Sewer System

30%

16%

7 WWTPs

Lockport

Chicago Sanitary & Ship Canal, Cal-Sag Channel

Mississippi River


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Water reuse priorities

  • Industrial

    • Process/cooling

  • Commercial/Domestic

    • Car wash

    • Toilet flush

    • Firefighting

  • Irrigation

  • Groundwater recharge

  • Potable water

Low

High

Quality

Priority

High

Low


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Industrial hydrologic footprints

  • Measure of industry interaction with water

    • Conventional direct water use

    • Evaporative loss associated with electricity use

    • Stormwater runoff from industry property

    • Supply chain direct water use

    • Supply chain evaporative loss with electricity


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Estimating hydrologic footprints in Chicago

  • Consider 50 largest volume water dischargers

  • Supply chain data from eiolca.net

  • Data normalized to economic activity (gal/$)


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High water & electricity use

Mid-water & electricity use

Low water & electricity use

Water & electricity use for 31 industry sectors


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Supply chain water & electricity use

Supply chain dominated by less than 60 unique SIC codes


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Who makes up the supply chain?

  • Blast furnaces and steel mills

  • Industrial inorganic and organic chemicals

  • Paper and paperboard mills

  • Petroleum refining

  • Pulp mills

  • Nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers

  • Primary aluminum

  • Plastics materials and resins



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Hydrologic footprint summary

  • Indirect use (stormwater, electricity) is small

  • Direct use (industry or supply chain) dominates

  • Supply chains are often important

  • Supply chains dominated by a few industries

  • 10% have relatively big footprints (gal/$)

  • What issues affect water reuse?


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Water reuse: Barriers & Incentives

Policy

Economics

Risk

Regulations

Technology

Water Source

WastewaterTreatment

Users


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Water reuse regulations

  • Federal

    • There are no water reuse regulations

    • Guidelines for Water Reuse (USEPA, 2004)

  • States (2004 data)

    • 25 states have regulations

    • 16 states have guidelines

    • 9 states without regulations or guidelines

  • Illinois regulations address land application


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Water reuse risks

  • Ecosystem risks

    • Chemical contaminants of concern

    • Nutrients

  • Human health risks

    • Pathogenic organisms

      Bacteria, viruses, protozoa

    • Chemical contaminants of concern

      • Pharmaceuticals

      • Pesticides, herbicides

      • Disinfection by-products


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“…there have not been any confirmed cases of infectious disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

USEPA (2004)

  • Are there unconfirmed cases?

  • What about non-infectious disease?

  • How long does it take to see effects?

  • What about incidental reuse?

  • What about ecosystem risks?


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Is wastewater reuse economical? disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Objective:

    • Minimize cost

  • Constraints:

    • Demand

    • Mass balance

    • Capacity

    • Water withdrawal

    • Water quality


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Pipeline costs dominate disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”


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Costs have a spatial relationship disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

Volume demand increases with distance

III

II

I


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Costs depend on flow & distance disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

Volume demand


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Costs depend on flow & distance disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”


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Costs depend on flow & distance disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”


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Costs depend on flow & distance disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

Increasing the distanceincreases the cost

Increasing the flowdecreases the cost

The minimum cost


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A case study disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.” for industry near the Kirie WRP


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Kirie case study disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • 28 Significant Industrial Users

    • Metal finishing: 16

    • Electroplating: 4

    • Others: 8

  • Total water discharge: 1.09 MGD

  • Assume 50% treated effluent use

  • Supply effluent 12 months/year

    • 6 months/year additional chlorination


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Kirie case study parameters disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Interests rate: 6%

    5%~10%

  • Utility service life: 40 years

    25~40 years

  • Amortization period: 40 years

    25~40 years

  • Pipeline installation unit cost: 75 US$/feet

    75 ~ 200 US$/feet


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Kirie case study disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3


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Kirie case study disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

Zone 1


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Kirie case study disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

Zones 1 & 2


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Kirie case study disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

Zones 1, 2 & 3


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Elk Grove Village water disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

Chicago municipal water

Cost depends on volume & distance

(i = 6%, t = 40 years, Pipeline US$75/feet)


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Chicago reuse study summary disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Pipeline installation costs dominate

  • Spatial relationships affect supply cost

  • Reuse can be cost effective

  • Chicago is an unusual case study

    • Municipal water is very cheap

    • Reuse offers no economic incentive to MWRDGC

    • Chicago’s successful water conservation efforts


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What about the western suburbs? disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Recent drought

  • Municipal water costs are higher

  • Groundwater supplies uncertain

  • Surface water up to 35% treated effluent


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New issues in the suburbs disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Industrial clusters are limited

  • Distribution over longer distances

  • Consider non-industrial users

    • Park district, golf course, forest preserve

    • Limited seasonal demand

    • Potential increased exposure


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Integrated water reuse planning disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.” for the suburbs

  • Inventory available land considering:

    • IEPA land application regulations

    • Distance

    • Relationship to potential co-users

  • Model fate and transport

    • Soil, groundwater, surface water

    • Process design and operation


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Are there other reuse incentives? disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Greatest cost: Distribution system

  • Is there another benefit?

    • Once you install a secondary distribution system, is there another use?


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Geothermal heat pumps disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • “…the most energy efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning systems available.” (USEPA, 1993)

  • Benefits (USDOE, 1998):

    • Less energy consumption

    • Lower operating costs

    • Reduced carbon emissions


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Average monthly temperatures (2002) disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”


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Effluent as a heat source/sink disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Growing interest in water-source heat pumps

    • Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation

      •  20 geothermal demonstration systems

    • Space conditioning and hot water supply

    • Payback < 10 years

  • Benefits of working with effluent

    • Higher temperature implies higher efficiency

    • Avoid drilling to install ground loops


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Ground loop represents disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.” about 60% of initial costs

Domestic geothermal heat pump

USDOE (1998)


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Dual-purpose distribution system disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Integrated infrastructure

    • Non-potable water supply

    • Ground loop for heat pump system

  • Issues

    • Economics

    • Regulations

    • Technology

    • Risk

    • Policy


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Summary thoughts… disease resulting from the use of properly treated reclaimed water in the U.S.”

  • Water reuse can help meet demand

  • Hydrologic footprints measure efficiency

  • Incentives & barriers for reuse

    • Soft: Technology, policy, regulations

    • Hard: Public perceptions, economics

  • Water reuse can be economical

    • Integrated planning for multiple uses

    • Consider water & energy


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