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Organizing Life’s Diversity. Unit 5 Chapter 17. What is classification?. the grouping of objects or information based on similarities This helps biologists understand how organisms are related to each other.

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what is classification
What is classification?
  • the grouping of objects or information based on similarities
  • This helps biologists understand how organisms are related to each other.
  • This is useful in agriculture, forestry, biochemistry, and medicine (to name a few fields).
taxonomists study taxonomy
Taxonomists study taxonomy.
  • the branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics

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aristotelian classification
Aristotelian classification

Life

Plant

Animal

Herb Shrub Tree

Aristotle grouped organisms based on appearance and abilities.

carolus linnaeus 1707 1778
Carolus Linnaeus: 1707-1778
  • Swedish botanist
  • Created modern classification system based on physical and structural similarities
  • Modern taxonomists have altered the Linnaean system to reflect evolutionary relationships.
binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
  • two-word naming system to identify organism
  • Genus: group of related species
    • always capitalized
  • Specific epithetic: particular characteristic
    • always lower case
  • Ex: Homo sapiens

When writing the scientific name which is Latin, one must italicize when typing or underline when handwriting.

Genus specific epithet

common names
Common names
  • Many people refer to organisms by common names rather than scientific names.
  • Be careful that common names do not always reflect the biology of the organism.
  • Scientific name: Fragaria ananassa
  • Common name: strawberry
dichotomous key system to identify organisms and their scientific names
Dichotomous key: system to identify organisms and their scientific names
  • A key is made up of sets of numbered statements.
  • Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape or arrangement.
how living things are classified
How living things are classified
  • Taxon: a group of organisms (taxa, pl.)
  • These groups (taxa) can be very broad or very specific.
  • The taxonomic levels from most broad to most specific: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
taxonomic levels
Taxonomic levels

Domain

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Chordata

Phylum

Class

Mammalia

Carnivora

Order

Felidae

Family

Lynx

Genus

Species

Lynx

canadensis

Lynx

rufus

Lynx

Bobcat

comparing related animals
Comparing related animals
  • Lynx rufus, lynx
  • Panthera concolor, mountain lion
  • Lynx canadensis, bobcat
  • Which two are more related? How do you know?

Lynx

Bobcat

Mountain lion

what determines evolutionary relationship
What determines evolutionary relationship?
  • Anatomy and physiology
    • Common structures imply a common ancestor.
  • Breeding and behavior patterns
  • Geographic distribution
  • DNA and biochemistry

DNA comparisons between these plants show almost no difference.

phylogeny studying the evolutionary histories and relationships of organisms
Phylogeny: Studying the evolutionary histories and relationships of organisms
  • Cladistics: a phylogenic study that assumes probabl groups of organisms diverged and evolved

Allosaurus

Velociraptor

Archaeopteryx

Sinornis

Theropods

Flight feathers;

arms as long

as legs

Feathers with

shaft, veins,

and barbs

3-toed foot;

wishbone

Down

feathers

Light bones

modern six kingdom classification
Modern six-kingdom classification
  • Archaebacteria: prokaryotic
  • Eubacteria: prokaryotic
  • Protists: eukaryotic
  • Fungi: eukaryotic
  • Plants: eukaryotic
  • Animals: eukaryotic
archaebacteria overview
Archaebacteria overview
  • Most live in extreme environments such as swamps, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, and seawater evaporating ponds.
  • Most do not use oxygen to respire.
eubacteria overview
Eubacteria overview
  • very strong cell walls
  • a less complex genetic makeup than found in archaebacteria or eukaryotes
  • diverse habitat
section 17 2 summary pages 450 459
Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

A Paramecium

Protists: A diverse group

Anal

pore

Cilia

  • Kingdom Protista contains diverse species that share some characteristics.

Oral

groove

  • A protist is a eukaryote that.

Gullet

Contractile

vacuole

Micronucleus and

macronucleus

protist overview
Protist overview
  • lacks complex organ systems
  • lives in moist environments
  • diverse metabolism
fungi overview
Fungi overview
  • Decomposes matter by absorbing materials
  • Multicellular or unicellular
plant overview
Plant overview
  • Multicellular
  • Photosynthetic: produce oxygen
  • Immobile
  • Cell walls
animal overview
Animal overview
  • Multicellular
  • Mostly mobile
  • Lack cell walls
  • Diverse habitats
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