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Organizing Life’s Diversity. Unit 5 Chapter 17. What is classification?. the grouping of objects or information based on similarities This helps biologists understand how organisms are related to each other.

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What is classification l.jpg
What is classification?

  • the grouping of objects or information based on similarities

  • This helps biologists understand how organisms are related to each other.

  • This is useful in agriculture, forestry, biochemistry, and medicine (to name a few fields).


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Taxonomists study taxonomy.

  • the branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics

Click on image to play video.


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Aristotelian classification

Life

Plant

Animal

Herb Shrub Tree

Aristotle grouped organisms based on appearance and abilities.


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Carolus Linnaeus: 1707-1778

  • Swedish botanist

  • Created modern classification system based on physical and structural similarities

  • Modern taxonomists have altered the Linnaean system to reflect evolutionary relationships.


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Binomial nomenclature

  • two-word naming system to identify organism

  • Genus: group of related species

    • always capitalized

  • Specific epithetic: particular characteristic

    • always lower case

  • Ex: Homo sapiens

When writing the scientific name which is Latin, one must italicize when typing or underline when handwriting.

Genus specific epithet


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Common names

  • Many people refer to organisms by common names rather than scientific names.

  • Be careful that common names do not always reflect the biology of the organism.

  • Scientific name: Fragaria ananassa

  • Common name: strawberry


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Dichotomous key: system to identify organisms and their scientific names

  • A key is made up of sets of numbered statements.

  • Each set deals with a single characteristic of an organism, such as leaf shape or arrangement.


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How living things are classified

  • Taxon: a group of organisms (taxa, pl.)

  • These groups (taxa) can be very broad or very specific.

  • The taxonomic levels from most broad to most specific: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species


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Taxonomic levels

Domain

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Chordata

Phylum

Class

Mammalia

Carnivora

Order

Felidae

Family

Lynx

Genus

Species

Lynx

canadensis

Lynx

rufus

Lynx

Bobcat


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Comparing related animals

  • Lynx rufus, lynx

  • Panthera concolor, mountain lion

  • Lynx canadensis, bobcat

  • Which two are more related? How do you know?

Lynx

Bobcat

Mountain lion


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What determines evolutionary relationship?

  • Anatomy and physiology

    • Common structures imply a common ancestor.

  • Breeding and behavior patterns

  • Geographic distribution

  • DNA and biochemistry

DNA comparisons between these plants show almost no difference.


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Phylogeny: Studying the evolutionary histories and relationships of organisms

  • Cladistics: a phylogenic study that assumes probabl groups of organisms diverged and evolved

Allosaurus

Velociraptor

Archaeopteryx

Sinornis

Theropods

Flight feathers;

arms as long

as legs

Feathers with

shaft, veins,

and barbs

3-toed foot;

wishbone

Down

feathers

Light bones



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Modern six-kingdom classification

  • Archaebacteria: prokaryotic

  • Eubacteria: prokaryotic

  • Protists: eukaryotic

  • Fungi: eukaryotic

  • Plants: eukaryotic

  • Animals: eukaryotic


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Archaebacteria overview

  • Most live in extreme environments such as swamps, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, and seawater evaporating ponds.

  • Most do not use oxygen to respire.


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Eubacteria overview

  • very strong cell walls

  • a less complex genetic makeup than found in archaebacteria or eukaryotes

  • diverse habitat


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Section 17.2 Summary – pages 450-459

A Paramecium

Protists: A diverse group

Anal

pore

Cilia

  • Kingdom Protista contains diverse species that share some characteristics.

Oral

groove

  • A protist is a eukaryote that.

Gullet

Contractile

vacuole

Micronucleus and

macronucleus


Protist overview l.jpg
Protist overview

  • lacks complex organ systems

  • lives in moist environments

  • diverse metabolism


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Fungi overview

  • Decomposes matter by absorbing materials

  • Multicellular or unicellular


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Plant overview

  • Multicellular

  • Photosynthetic: produce oxygen

  • Immobile

  • Cell walls


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Animal overview

  • Multicellular

  • Mostly mobile

  • Lack cell walls

  • Diverse habitats


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