Martha Bern al: the life of a woman minority psychologist. History of Psychology June 20, 2006. Early Influences and Zeitgeist Andrea Villareal. Early Life. Born in San Antonio, Texas on April 13, 1931. Parents were Alicia and Enrique de Bernal, who were Mexican emigrants.
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History of Psychology
June 20, 2006
Portrayed as less intelligent
Held back in their education
Supported by few, if any
Denied opportunity to study psychology
Denied publication of their work
Denied academic appointments
Not understoodObstacles of Ethnic Minority Psychologists
Despite struggles, Martha held on to the belief that the chance to succeed exists alongside the challenge to overcome obstacles.
“Throughout my life, however critical I might be of this country, I have felt grateful for the opportunities of which I availed myself. They would most likely not have existed had I lived in Mexico.” - Martha Bernal
The 40-year journey beginning in 1964 with the passage of the Civil Rights Act in Congress
2002:The approval of the “GuidelinesonMulticultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists” (American Psychological Association [APA], 2003)Influence on APA
“[Martha] was passionate about her ideas, she spoke out effectively against injustice, she maintained high standards of scholarship and professionalism, she demonstrated much compassion for fellow human beings, and she had considerable energy.”
-Vasquez & Lopez, 2002, p. 362
References the Civil Rights Act in Congress
Ballie, R. (2002). Martha E. Bernal dies at age 70. Monitor on Psychology, 33, Retrieved June 1, 2006 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan02/latina.html.
Bernal, M. (1996). How did you do it? Counseling Psychologist, 24, 269-272.
Bernal, M. & Castro, F.G. (1994). Are clinical psychologists prepared for service and research with ethnic minorities? Report of a decade of progress. American Psychologist, 49, 797-805.
Bernal, M., & Kreutzer, S.L. (1976). Relationship between excuses and dropout at a mental health center. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 494.
Bernal, M., & Miller, W.H. (1970). Electrodermal and cardiac responses of schizophrenic children to sensory stimuli. Psychophysiology, 7, 155-168.
Bernal, M., & North, J.A. (1978). A survey of parent training manuals. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 11, 533-544.
Bernal, M., & Padilla, A.M. (1982). Status of minority curricula and training in clinical psychology. American Psychologist, 37, 780-787.
Faludi, S. (1991). Backlash. New York: Crown Publishers Inc.
Martha Bernal: Award for distinguished senior career contributions in the public interest. (2001). American Psychologist, 56, 922-924.
Martha Bernal: Life and contributions. Women’s Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society. Retrieved from http://www.webster.edu/%7Ewoolflm/bernal.html.
O’Connell, A.N., & Russo, N.F. (Eds.). (1988). Models of achievement: Reflections of
eminent women in psychology (Vol. 2). Erlbaum.
Knight, G.P., Bernal, M.E., Garza, C.A., & Cota, M.K. (1993). Family socialization and the ethnic identity of Mexican-American children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24, 99-114.
Knight, G.P., Cota, M.K, & Bernal, M.E. (1993). The socialization of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic preferences among Mexican American children: The mediating role of ethnic identity. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 15, 291-309.
Quintana, S.M., & Bernal, M. (1995). Ethnic minority training in counseling psychology: Comparisons with clinical psychology nd proposed standards. Counseling Psychologist, 23, 102-121.
Sleek, S. (1999). Three decades after king: A report card. Monitor on Psychology, 30, Retrieved June 1, 2006 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan99/racism.html.\
Stevens, G. (1982). The women of psychology. Cambridge, Massachussetts:
Schenkman Publications Co.
Thompson, R.J., & Bernal, M.E. (1982). Factors associated with parent labeling of children referred for conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 191-202.
Vasquez, M. J.T. (2002). Complexities of the latina experience: A tribute to Martha Bernal. American Psychologist, 57, 880-888.
Vasquez, M. J.T. (2003). The life and death of a multicultural feminist pioneer: Martha Bernal. The Feminist Psychologist Newsletter, 30, retrieved June 1, 2006 from http://www.psych.york.ca/femhop/Martha%20Bernal.html.