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Classification of Living Things Chapter 18. http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg. TAXONOMY.

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Classification of living things chapter 18 l.jpg

Classification of Living ThingsChapter 18

http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg


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TAXONOMY

_______________ = branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their _________________________Does it have a backbone? Feathers? Gills? Flippers?__________________________How has organism changed in fossil record? What other organisms is it related to?

CHARACTERISTICS

EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY


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The first person to group or classify organisms was the Greek teacher & philosopher _______________more than 2000 years ago.

ARISTOTLE

(300 B.C.)

Image from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html


Aristotle s system l.jpg

By: Riedell

Aristotle’s system

ANIMALS:

PLANTS:

Based on size of stem

Based on where they lived


Problems l.jpg

Problems?

1. Not all organisms fit into Aristotle’s 2 groups (plants or animals)

Ex: Bacteria Fungi

Images from: http://www.leighday.co.uk/upload/public/docImages/6/Listeria%20bacteria.jpg

http://danny.oz.au/travel/iceland/p/3571-fungi.jpg


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Problems?

Ex: A jelly fish isn’t a fish,

but a seahorse is!

2. Common names can be misleading

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jellyfish

Sea cucumber sounds like a plant but… it’s an animal!

Image from: http://www.alaska.net/~scubaguy/images/seacucumber.jpg


Problems7 l.jpg

Problems?

3. Common names vary from place to place

Ex: puma, catamount, mountain lion, cougar are all names for same animal

Image from: http://www4.d25.k12.id.us/ihil/images/Cougar.jpg


Problems8 l.jpg

Problems?

4. Same organisms have different names in different countries.

Chipmunk

Streifenhornchen (German)

Tamia (Italian)

Ardilla listada (Spanish)

Image from: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/chipmunk_pictures.htm


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Solution?

Some early scientists devised scientific names using long descriptions in LATIN.

RED OAK

Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis


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RED OAK

Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis

“oak with leaves with deep blunt lobes bearing hairlike bristles”

PROBLEMS?

Names too hard and long to remember!

Names don’t show relationships between different animals


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Carolus Linnaeus comes to the rescue!

Devised a new classification system based on _________________

(Organism’s form and structure)

MORPHOLOGY

(1707-1778)

Image from: http://www.medusozoa.com/images/linnaeus.jpg


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Linnaeus’s System

HIERARCHY

Grouped in a _____________

of 7 different levels

Each organism has a two part LATIN __________________

SCIENTIFIC NAME


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Kidspiration by RiedellSource: see end of show


Slide14 l.jpg

Kids

Prefer

Cheese

Over

Fried

Green

Spinach

  • Kingdom

    • Phylum

      • Class

        • Order

          • Family

          • Genus

          • Species


Slide15 l.jpg

  • Kingdom

    • Phylum

    • Class

    • Order

      • Family

      • Genus Species

Animalia

Chordata

Mammalia

Carnivora

Felidae

Panthera

leo

http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/personnel/tom_b/2004-lion.jpg


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Kidspiration by Riedell


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BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE(2 name naming system)

  • 1st name = _______________

    • Always capitalized

GENUS NAME

SPECIES IDENTIFIER

  • 2nd name = _________________

    • Always lower case

UNDERLINED

  • Both names are ______________ or written in ____________.

ITALICS


Binomial nomenclature l.jpg

Binomial Nomenclature

Vampire batDesmodus rotundus

Image from: http://212.84.179.117/i/Vampire%20Bat.jpg

Eastern chipmunk

Tamias striatus

Image from: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/chipmunk_pictures.htm


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Binomial nomenclature

Humans

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens

Image from: http://www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/images/photo_baby.jpg


So what do we use now l.jpg

So what do we use now?

MODERN TAXONOMY

Still use Linnaeus’s system:

but we have added more _____________

KINGDOMS

Remember: Linnaeus only had 2.


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Modern Taxonomy

Kidspiration by Riedell


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MODERN TAXONOMY

organizes

living things

in the context of

_________________

Evolution

http://animals.timduru.org/dirlist/dino/FlyingDinosaurus-Pterodon-fossil.jpg


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MODERN TAXONOMY

  • Scientists use different kinds of info

  • to classify organisms:

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

Fossil record

Morphology

Embryology

Chromosomes

Macromolecules (DNA & proteins)


1 fossil record l.jpg

1. FOSSIL RECORD

We can trace some changes over time through the fossil record.

Evolutionary history = _____________

PHYLOGENY

http://www.familyeducation.com/printables/display/0,2361,1650,00.gif


2 morphology l.jpg

2. MORPHOLOGY

Shape and Function

Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html


Morphology l.jpg

MORPHOLOGY

HOMOLOGOUS

_________________ characteristics:

same embryological origin (may have similar structure and function)

EX: __________________________

Bat wing & human arm

Homologous characteristics suggest a

_____________________.

Recent common ancestor


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HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES

Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html

Bat wing

and human arm

develop from same embryonic structures


Morphology28 l.jpg

MORPHOLOGY

______________ characteristics:may have similar structure & function but different embryological origin

EX: _______________________

ANALOGOUS

Bird wing & butterfly wing

ANALOGOUS characteristics evolved separately.Organisms ________________________.

NOT CLOSELY RELATED


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ANALOGOUSSTRUCTURES

Bird wing and

butterfly wing

have evolved with similar function

BUT

different structure

inside.

http://uk.dk.com/static/cs/uk/11/clipart/bird/image_bird003.html

Insects and birds NOT closely related!

http://www.naturenorth.com/butterfly/images/05a%20tiger%20wing.jpg


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Even differences show relatedness

amnion /am·ni·on/ (am´ne-on) bag of waters; the extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and mammals, which lines the chorion and contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid

http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/27/117227-050-E1C9ABEE.jpg

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/amnions


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3. EMBRYOLOGY

Animals whose embryos develop in a similar pattern may be related

Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml


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4. CHROMOSOMES

Similar karyotypes suggest closer relationships.

Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png

Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.


Slide33 l.jpg

Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes

Even differences show relatedness

Chimpanzees have 2 smaller chromosome pairs we don’t have

Humans have 1 larger chromosome pair (#2) they don’t have.

Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png

Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.


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TELOMERES IN MIDDLE

____________________

All chromosomes have special sequences called TELOMERES at their ends to protect the strands during replication.

http://joannenova.com.au/Speaking/Morslids.html


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2. TELOMERES IN MIDDLE

Human chromosome is only human chromosome that has telomere sequences at the ends BUT ALSO IN THE MIDDLE . . . suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together.

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


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EXTRA CENTROMERE

_________________

Chromosome #2 has a second inactive centromere region . . .

suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together.

Which chromosomes?

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


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BANDING PATTERN MATCHES

________________________

If you take the two smaller chromosomes they have that we don’t, and place them end to end, the banding pattern is identical to human chromosome #2

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


5 macromolecules l.jpg

5. MACROMOLECULES

Compare molecules like _________________ _________________

Organisms with similar sequences are

probably more closely related.

PROTEINS (amino acids)

DNA

See page 334-335


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So what do we use now?

_________________-based on multiple kinds of evidence

6 KINGDOMS

Protista

Animalia

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Plantae

Fungi

Shows evolutionary relationships based on:

Morphology Fossil records Embryology Chromosomes Macromolecules (DNA & Proteins)


6 kingdom system l.jpg

6 KINGDOM SYSTEM

These relationships can be shown in a diagram called a

_______________________

PHYLOGENETIC TREE

Image from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/clip0075.jpg


So what do we use now42 l.jpg

So what do we use now?

OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY BESIDES the 6 KINGDOM SYSTEM:

_____________

CLADISTICS

Shows evolutionary relationships based on:

_____________________________

“shared derived characters”


Cladistics l.jpg

CLADISTICS

CLADOGRAM

Cladistic relationships are shown in a diagram called a_________________

Image from:http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/clip0075.jpg


3 domain system l.jpg

So what do we use now?

3 DOMAIN SYSTEM

OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY BESIDES the 6 KINGDOM SYSTEM:

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Group organisms based on the

kind of ______________ they have

RIBOSOMES


South dakota core science standards l.jpg

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.


South dakota core science standards46 l.jpg

SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationship of major taxa. (APPLICATION)

  • Kingdoms

    Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera

  • Phyla

    Examples: invertebrates, vertebrates, divisions of plants


Core high school life science performance descriptors l.jpg

Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors


South dakota advanced science standards l.jpg

SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS

9-12.L.1.3A. Students are able to explain how gene expression regulates cell growth and differentiation. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples:

Tissue formation Development of new cells from original stem cells

9-12.L.1.5A. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of domains. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples:eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes


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Kidspiration by RiedellImage sources: see end of show


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Image Sources

http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/2428/directory.html

http://www.gifs.net

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm

http://www.seattleschools.org/schools/blaine/

http://www.kidskonnect.com/Lions/lion.gif


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http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif

http://www.ca4h.org/4hresource/clipart/animals/pics/dog.gif

http://www.madlantern.com/clipart/cindexw.htm

http://www.drtoy.com/news/

http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/images/platypus.gif


Slide52 l.jpg

http://www.gifs.net

 http://www.dallas-zoo.org/featured/featured.asp?page=wc

http://www.animationlibrary.com

http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg


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