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Classification of Living Things Chapter 18. http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg. TAXONOMY.

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Classification of Living Things Chapter 18

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Classification of Living ThingsChapter 18

http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg


TAXONOMY

_______________ = branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their _________________________Does it have a backbone? Feathers? Gills? Flippers?__________________________How has organism changed in fossil record? What other organisms is it related to?

CHARACTERISTICS

EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY


The first person to group or classify organisms was the Greek teacher & philosopher _______________more than 2000 years ago.

ARISTOTLE

(300 B.C.)

Image from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html


By: Riedell

Aristotle’s system

ANIMALS:

PLANTS:

Based on size of stem

Based on where they lived


Problems?

1. Not all organisms fit into Aristotle’s 2 groups (plants or animals)

Ex: Bacteria Fungi

Images from: http://www.leighday.co.uk/upload/public/docImages/6/Listeria%20bacteria.jpg

http://danny.oz.au/travel/iceland/p/3571-fungi.jpg


Problems?

Ex: A jelly fish isn’t a fish,

but a seahorse is!

2. Common names can be misleading

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jellyfish

Sea cucumber sounds like a plant but… it’s an animal!

Image from: http://www.alaska.net/~scubaguy/images/seacucumber.jpg


Problems?

3. Common names vary from place to place

Ex: puma, catamount, mountain lion, cougar are all names for same animal

Image from: http://www4.d25.k12.id.us/ihil/images/Cougar.jpg


Problems?

4. Same organisms have different names in different countries.

Chipmunk

Streifenhornchen (German)

Tamia (Italian)

Ardilla listada (Spanish)

Image from: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/chipmunk_pictures.htm


Solution?

Some early scientists devised scientific names using long descriptions in LATIN.

RED OAK

Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis


RED OAK

Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis

“oak with leaves with deep blunt lobes bearing hairlike bristles”

PROBLEMS?

Names too hard and long to remember!

Names don’t show relationships between different animals


Carolus Linnaeus comes to the rescue!

Devised a new classification system based on _________________

(Organism’s form and structure)

MORPHOLOGY

(1707-1778)

Image from: http://www.medusozoa.com/images/linnaeus.jpg


Linnaeus’s System

HIERARCHY

Grouped in a _____________

of 7 different levels

Each organism has a two part LATIN __________________

SCIENTIFIC NAME


Kidspiration by RiedellSource: see end of show


Kids

Prefer

Cheese

Over

Fried

Green

Spinach

  • Kingdom

    • Phylum

      • Class

        • Order

          • Family

          • Genus

          • Species


  • Kingdom

    • Phylum

    • Class

    • Order

      • Family

      • Genus Species

Animalia

Chordata

Mammalia

Carnivora

Felidae

Panthera

leo

http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/personnel/tom_b/2004-lion.jpg


Kidspiration by Riedell


BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE(2 name naming system)

  • 1st name = _______________

    • Always capitalized

GENUS NAME

SPECIES IDENTIFIER

  • 2nd name = _________________

    • Always lower case

UNDERLINED

  • Both names are ______________ or written in ____________.

ITALICS


Binomial Nomenclature

Vampire batDesmodus rotundus

Image from: http://212.84.179.117/i/Vampire%20Bat.jpg

Eastern chipmunk

Tamias striatus

Image from: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/chipmunk_pictures.htm


Binomial nomenclature

Humans

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens

Image from: http://www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/images/photo_baby.jpg


So what do we use now?

MODERN TAXONOMY

Still use Linnaeus’s system:

but we have added more _____________

KINGDOMS

Remember: Linnaeus only had 2.


Modern Taxonomy

Kidspiration by Riedell


MODERN TAXONOMY

organizes

living things

in the context of

_________________

Evolution

http://animals.timduru.org/dirlist/dino/FlyingDinosaurus-Pterodon-fossil.jpg


MODERN TAXONOMY

  • Scientists use different kinds of info

  • to classify organisms:

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

Fossil record

Morphology

Embryology

Chromosomes

Macromolecules (DNA & proteins)


1. FOSSIL RECORD

We can trace some changes over time through the fossil record.

Evolutionary history = _____________

PHYLOGENY

http://www.familyeducation.com/printables/display/0,2361,1650,00.gif


2. MORPHOLOGY

Shape and Function

Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html


MORPHOLOGY

HOMOLOGOUS

_________________ characteristics:

same embryological origin (may have similar structure and function)

EX: __________________________

Bat wing & human arm

Homologous characteristics suggest a

_____________________.

Recent common ancestor


HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES

Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html

Bat wing

and human arm

develop from same embryonic structures


MORPHOLOGY

______________ characteristics:may have similar structure & function but different embryological origin

EX: _______________________

ANALOGOUS

Bird wing & butterfly wing

ANALOGOUS characteristics evolved separately.Organisms ________________________.

NOT CLOSELY RELATED


ANALOGOUSSTRUCTURES

Bird wing and

butterfly wing

have evolved with similar function

BUT

different structure

inside.

http://uk.dk.com/static/cs/uk/11/clipart/bird/image_bird003.html

Insects and birds NOT closely related!

http://www.naturenorth.com/butterfly/images/05a%20tiger%20wing.jpg


Even differences show relatedness

amnion /am·ni·on/ (am´ne-on) bag of waters; the extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and mammals, which lines the chorion and contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid

http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/27/117227-050-E1C9ABEE.jpg

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/amnions


3. EMBRYOLOGY

Animals whose embryos develop in a similar pattern may be related

Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml


4. CHROMOSOMES

Similar karyotypes suggest closer relationships.

Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png

Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.


Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes

Even differences show relatedness

Chimpanzees have 2 smaller chromosome pairs we don’t have

Humans have 1 larger chromosome pair (#2) they don’t have.

Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png

Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.


TELOMERES IN MIDDLE

____________________

All chromosomes have special sequences called TELOMERES at their ends to protect the strands during replication.

http://joannenova.com.au/Speaking/Morslids.html


2. TELOMERES IN MIDDLE

Human chromosome is only human chromosome that has telomere sequences at the ends BUT ALSO IN THE MIDDLE . . . suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together.

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


EXTRA CENTROMERE

_________________

Chromosome #2 has a second inactive centromere region . . .

suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together.

Which chromosomes?

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


BANDING PATTERN MATCHES

________________________

If you take the two smaller chromosomes they have that we don’t, and place them end to end, the banding pattern is identical to human chromosome #2

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


5. MACROMOLECULES

Compare molecules like _________________ _________________

Organisms with similar sequences are

probably more closely related.

PROTEINS (amino acids)

DNA

See page 334-335


So what do we use now?

_________________-based on multiple kinds of evidence

6 KINGDOMS

Protista

Animalia

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Plantae

Fungi

Shows evolutionary relationships based on:

Morphology Fossil records Embryology Chromosomes Macromolecules (DNA & Proteins)


6 KINGDOM SYSTEM

These relationships can be shown in a diagram called a

_______________________

PHYLOGENETIC TREE

Image from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/clip0075.jpg


So what do we use now?

OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY BESIDES the 6 KINGDOM SYSTEM:

_____________

CLADISTICS

Shows evolutionary relationships based on:

_____________________________

“shared derived characters”


CLADISTICS

CLADOGRAM

Cladistic relationships are shown in a diagram called a_________________

Image from:http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/clip0075.jpg


So what do we use now?

3 DOMAIN SYSTEM

OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY BESIDES the 6 KINGDOM SYSTEM:

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Group organisms based on the

kind of ______________ they have

RIBOSOMES


SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.


SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationship of major taxa. (APPLICATION)

  • Kingdoms

    Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera

  • Phyla

    Examples: invertebrates, vertebrates, divisions of plants


Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors


SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS

9-12.L.1.3A. Students are able to explain how gene expression regulates cell growth and differentiation. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples:

Tissue formation Development of new cells from original stem cells

9-12.L.1.5A. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of domains. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples:eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes


Kidspiration by RiedellImage sources: see end of show


Image Sources

http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/2428/directory.html

http://www.gifs.net

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm

http://www.seattleschools.org/schools/blaine/

http://www.kidskonnect.com/Lions/lion.gif


http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif

http://www.ca4h.org/4hresource/clipart/animals/pics/dog.gif

http://www.madlantern.com/clipart/cindexw.htm

http://www.drtoy.com/news/

http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/images/platypus.gif


http://www.gifs.net

 http://www.dallas-zoo.org/featured/featured.asp?page=wc

http://www.animationlibrary.com

http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg


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