Classification of living things chapter 18
Download
1 / 52

introf05class - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 306 Views
  • Uploaded on

Classification of Living Things Chapter 18. http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg. TAXONOMY.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'introf05class' - Sophia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Classification of living things chapter 18 l.jpg

Classification of Living ThingsChapter 18

http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg


Slide2 l.jpg

TAXONOMY

_______________ = branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their _________________________Does it have a backbone? Feathers? Gills? Flippers?__________________________How has organism changed in fossil record? What other organisms is it related to?

CHARACTERISTICS

EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY


Slide3 l.jpg

The first person to group or classify organisms was the Greek teacher & philosopher _______________more than 2000 years ago.

ARISTOTLE

(300 B.C.)

Image from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html


Aristotle s system l.jpg

By: Riedell Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Aristotle’s system

ANIMALS:

PLANTS:

Based on size of stem

Based on where they lived


Problems l.jpg
Problems? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

1. Not all organisms fit into Aristotle’s 2 groups (plants or animals)

Ex: Bacteria Fungi

Images from: http://www.leighday.co.uk/upload/public/docImages/6/Listeria%20bacteria.jpg

http://danny.oz.au/travel/iceland/p/3571-fungi.jpg


Problems6 l.jpg
Problems? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Ex: A jelly fish isn’t a fish,

but a seahorse is!

2. Common names can be misleading

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jellyfish

Sea cucumber sounds like a plant but… it’s an animal!

Image from: http://www.alaska.net/~scubaguy/images/seacucumber.jpg


Problems7 l.jpg
Problems? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

3. Common names vary from place to place

Ex: puma, catamount, mountain lion, cougar are all names for same animal

Image from: http://www4.d25.k12.id.us/ihil/images/Cougar.jpg


Problems8 l.jpg
Problems? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

4. Same organisms have different names in different countries.

Chipmunk

Streifenhornchen (German)

Tamia (Italian)

Ardilla listada (Spanish)

Image from: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/chipmunk_pictures.htm


Solution l.jpg
Solution? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Some early scientists devised scientific names using long descriptions in LATIN.

RED OAK

Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis


Slide10 l.jpg

RED OAK Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis

“oak with leaves with deep blunt lobes bearing hairlike bristles”

PROBLEMS?

Names too hard and long to remember!

Names don’t show relationships between different animals


Carolus linnaeus comes to the rescue l.jpg
Carolus Linnaeus comes to the rescue! Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Devised a new classification system based on _________________

(Organism’s form and structure)

MORPHOLOGY

(1707-1778)

Image from: http://www.medusozoa.com/images/linnaeus.jpg


Linnaeus s system l.jpg
Linnaeus’s System Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

HIERARCHY

Grouped in a _____________

of 7 different levels

Each organism has a two part LATIN __________________

SCIENTIFIC NAME


Slide13 l.jpg

Kidspiration by Riedell Greek teacher & philosopher _______________Source: see end of show


Slide14 l.jpg

Kids Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Prefer

Cheese

Over

Fried

Green

Spinach

  • Kingdom

    • Phylum

      • Class

        • Order

          • Family

          • Genus

          • Species


Slide15 l.jpg

  • Kingdom Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

    • Phylum

    • Class

    • Order

      • Family

      • Genus Species

Animalia

Chordata

Mammalia

Carnivora

Felidae

Panthera

leo

http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/personnel/tom_b/2004-lion.jpg


Slide16 l.jpg

Kidspiration by Riedell Greek teacher & philosopher _______________


Binomial nomenclature 2 name naming system l.jpg
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE Greek teacher & philosopher _______________(2 name naming system)

  • 1st name = _______________

    • Always capitalized

GENUS NAME

SPECIES IDENTIFIER

  • 2nd name = _________________

    • Always lower case

UNDERLINED

  • Both names are ______________ or written in ____________.

ITALICS


Binomial nomenclature l.jpg
Binomial Nomenclature Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Vampire batDesmodus rotundus

Image from: http://212.84.179.117/i/Vampire%20Bat.jpg

Eastern chipmunk

Tamias striatus

Image from: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/chipmunk_pictures.htm


Binomial nomenclature19 l.jpg
Binomial nomenclature Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Humans

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens

Image from: http://www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/images/photo_baby.jpg


So what do we use now l.jpg
So what do we use now? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

MODERN TAXONOMY

Still use Linnaeus’s system:

but we have added more _____________

KINGDOMS

Remember: Linnaeus only had 2.


Modern taxonomy l.jpg
Modern Taxonomy Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Kidspiration by Riedell


Modern taxonomy22 l.jpg
MODERN TAXONOMY Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

organizes

living things

in the context of

_________________

Evolution

http://animals.timduru.org/dirlist/dino/FlyingDinosaurus-Pterodon-fossil.jpg


Modern taxonomy23 l.jpg
MODERN TAXONOMY Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

  • Scientists use different kinds of info

  • to classify organisms:

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

  • ______________________

Fossil record

Morphology

Embryology

Chromosomes

Macromolecules (DNA & proteins)


1 fossil record l.jpg
1. FOSSIL RECORD Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

We can trace some changes over time through the fossil record.

Evolutionary history = _____________

PHYLOGENY

http://www.familyeducation.com/printables/display/0,2361,1650,00.gif


2 morphology l.jpg
2. MORPHOLOGY Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Shape and Function

Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html


Morphology l.jpg
MORPHOLOGY Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

HOMOLOGOUS

_________________ characteristics:

same embryological origin (may have similar structure and function)

EX: __________________________

Bat wing & human arm

Homologous characteristics suggest a

_____________________.

Recent common ancestor


Slide27 l.jpg

HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html

Bat wing

and human arm

develop from same embryonic structures


Morphology28 l.jpg
MORPHOLOGY Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

______________ characteristics:may have similar structure & function but different embryological origin

EX: _______________________

ANALOGOUS

Bird wing & butterfly wing

ANALOGOUS characteristics evolved separately.Organisms ________________________.

NOT CLOSELY RELATED


Slide29 l.jpg

ANALOGOUS Greek teacher & philosopher _______________STRUCTURES

Bird wing and

butterfly wing

have evolved with similar function

BUT

different structure

inside.

http://uk.dk.com/static/cs/uk/11/clipart/bird/image_bird003.html

Insects and birds NOT closely related!

http://www.naturenorth.com/butterfly/images/05a%20tiger%20wing.jpg


Slide30 l.jpg

Even differences show relatedness Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

amnion /am·ni·on/ (am´ne-on) bag of waters; the extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and mammals, which lines the chorion and contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid

http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/27/117227-050-E1C9ABEE.jpg

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/amnions


3 embryology l.jpg
3. EMBRYOLOGY Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Animals whose embryos develop in a similar pattern may be related

Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml


4 chromosomes l.jpg
4. CHROMOSOMES Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Similar karyotypes suggest closer relationships.

Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png

Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.


Slide33 l.jpg

Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Even differences show relatedness

Chimpanzees have 2 smaller chromosome pairs we don’t have

Humans have 1 larger chromosome pair (#2) they don’t have.

Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png

Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.


Slide34 l.jpg

TELOMERES IN MIDDLE Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

____________________

All chromosomes have special sequences called TELOMERES at their ends to protect the strands during replication.

http://joannenova.com.au/Speaking/Morslids.html


2 telomeres in middle l.jpg
2. TELOMERES IN MIDDLE Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Human chromosome is only human chromosome that has telomere sequences at the ends BUT ALSO IN THE MIDDLE . . . suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together.

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


Slide36 l.jpg

EXTRA CENTROMERE Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

_________________

Chromosome #2 has a second inactive centromere region . . .

suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together.

Which chromosomes?

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


Slide37 l.jpg

BANDING PATTERN MATCHES Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

________________________

If you take the two smaller chromosomes they have that we don’t, and place them end to end, the banding pattern is identical to human chromosome #2

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm


5 macromolecules l.jpg
5. MACROMOLECULES Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

Compare molecules like _________________ _________________

Organisms with similar sequences are

probably more closely related.

PROTEINS (amino acids)

DNA

See page 334-335


So what do we use now40 l.jpg
So what do we use now? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

_________________-based on multiple kinds of evidence

6 KINGDOMS

Protista

Animalia

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Plantae

Fungi

Shows evolutionary relationships based on:

Morphology Fossil records Embryology Chromosomes Macromolecules (DNA & Proteins)


6 kingdom system l.jpg
6 KINGDOM SYSTEM Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

These relationships can be shown in a diagram called a

_______________________

PHYLOGENETIC TREE

Image from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/clip0075.jpg


So what do we use now42 l.jpg
So what do we use now? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY BESIDES the 6 KINGDOM SYSTEM:

_____________

CLADISTICS

Shows evolutionary relationships based on:

_____________________________

“shared derived characters”


Cladistics l.jpg
CLADISTICS Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

CLADOGRAM

Cladistic relationships are shown in a diagram called a_________________

Image from:http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/clip0075.jpg


3 domain system l.jpg

So what do we use now? Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

3 DOMAIN SYSTEM

OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY BESIDES the 6 KINGDOM SYSTEM:

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Group organisms based on the

kind of ______________ they have

RIBOSOMES


South dakota core science standards l.jpg
SOUTH DAKOTA Greek teacher & philosopher _______________CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.


South dakota core science standards46 l.jpg
SOUTH DAKOTA Greek teacher & philosopher _______________CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationship of major taxa. (APPLICATION)

  • Kingdoms

    Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera

  • Phyla

    Examples: invertebrates, vertebrates, divisions of plants


Core high school life science performance descriptors l.jpg
Core High School Life Science Greek teacher & philosopher _______________Performance Descriptors


South dakota advanced science standards l.jpg
SOUTH DAKOTA Greek teacher & philosopher _______________ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS

9-12.L.1.3A. Students are able to explain how gene expression regulates cell growth and differentiation. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples:

Tissue formation Development of new cells from original stem cells

9-12.L.1.5A. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of domains. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples:eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes


Slide49 l.jpg

Kidspiration by Riedell Greek teacher & philosopher _______________Image sources: see end of show


Image sources l.jpg
Image Sources Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/2428/directory.html

http://www.gifs.net

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm

http://www.seattleschools.org/schools/blaine/

http://www.kidskonnect.com/Lions/lion.gif


Slide51 l.jpg

http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

http://www.ca4h.org/4hresource/clipart/animals/pics/dog.gif

http://www.madlantern.com/clipart/cindexw.htm

http://www.drtoy.com/news/

http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/images/platypus.gif


Slide52 l.jpg

http://www.gifs.net Greek teacher & philosopher _______________

 http://www.dallas-zoo.org/featured/featured.asp?page=wc

http://www.animationlibrary.com

http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg


ad