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ENHANCED DISTILLATION






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AZEOTROPIC
ENHANCED DISTILLATION

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1. ENHANCED DISTILLATION AZEOTROPIC & EXTRACTIVE

2. AZEOTROPIC & EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION METHODS WHICH INCORPORATE THE ADDITION OF AN EXTRA COMPONENT, AN ENTRAINER SEPARATES AZEOTROPES COMPONENTS WITH SIMILAR VOLATILITIES

3. RESIDUE CURVES ADDITION OF AN ENTRAINER RESULTS IN A TERNARY MIXTURE RESIDUE CURVE REPRESENTS THE PLOT OF EQUILIBRIUM CURVES DURING A BATCH DISTILLATION CURVE DEPENDS ON STARTING CONCENTRATION SET OF CURVES IS CALLED A RESIDUE CURVE MAP RESIDUE REFERS TO THE COMPOSITION LEFT IN THE STILL

4. RESIDUE CURVE CALCULATION USE THE RAYLEIGH EQUATION ? IS DIMENSIONLESS TIME USE DIFFERENTIAL STEPS INTEGRATE TO GET CURVE COMPLETE BUBBLE POINT TO OBTAIN VAPOR PHASE COMPOSITIONS YIELDS Txy TRIANGULAR DIAGRAMS RESIDUE CURE MAP A SERIES OF CALCULATIONS WITH VARYING INITIAL COMPOSITIONS ARROWS SHOW INCREASING TIME SEE PERRY?S SECTION 13

5. TYPICAL RESIDUAL CURVE MAPS NONAZEOTROPIC TERNARY SINGLE REGION STARTS AT LOW BP. ENDS AT HIGH BP INTERMEDIATES ARE SADDLES PERRY?S FIG. 13-58

6. RESIDUAL MAP WITH AZEOTROPES REGION DIVIDES INTO TWO AZEOTROPES SEPARATIX IS PHASE BOUNDARY CURVES START AT AZEOTROPES PERRY?S (Ed. 7) FIG. 13-58

7. ENTRAINER CHARACTERISTICS ADDITION RESULTS IN AN INCREASE IN RELATIVE VOLATILITY OF A COMPONENT IN A MIXTURE IT GOES TO THE DISTILLATE SHOULD HAVE LOW HEAT OF VAPORIZATION THERMALLY STABLE NON-REACTIVE WITH SYSTEM COMPONENTS NON-CORROSIVE NON-TOXIC INEXPENSIVE AND AVAILABLE COMPLETELY SOLUBLE EASILY SEPARABLE

8. EXAMPLE PROCESS ETHANOL DEHYDRATION ? n-PENTANE AS ENTRAINER FORMS MINIMUM BOILING TERNARY AZEOTROPE THAT GOES TO THE TOP OF THE COLUMN CONDENSED OVERHEAD VAPOR FORMS TWO LAYERS ? ORGANIC AND WATER

9. PROCESS DESCRIPTION AZEOTROPES IN THIS SYSTEM FEED COMES FROM ETOH/H2O COLUMN AS 90.4% ETOH AZEOTROPE nC5 IS ADDED IN THE TOP OF THE COLUMN AND THE TERNARY AZEOTROPE FORMS 99.99% ETOH COMES OFF AS THE BOTTOMS THE MINIMUM BOILING TERNARY TAKES H2O TO THE TOP CONDENSED SYSTEM FORMS TWO IMMISCIBLE AZEOTROPES WATER IS DECANTED OFF THE TOP AS AQUEOUS PHASE ORGANIC PHASE IS REFLUXED TO THE COLUMN

10. RESIDUE MAP FOR THIS SYSTEM SYSTEM HAS TWO IMMISCIBLE LIQUID PHASES

11. EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION SOLVENT EXTRACTS A COMPONENT FROM A MIXTURE AVOIDS FORMATION OF AZEOTROPES THF-H2O USING AN IONIC LIQUID ENTRAINER

12. EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION FLOWSHEET IN A SINGLE COLUMN

13. EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION WITH TWO COLUMNS USES INTERNAL RECYCLE PERRY?S HAS SEVERAL CONFIGURATIONS

14. PRESSURE SWING METHOD USES PRESSURE TO SHIFT AZEOTROPE CONCENTRATIONS

15. PRESSURE SWING EXAMPLE TAME(tert-amyl methyl ether) ALSO INCLUDED REACTIVE DISTILLATION METHYL-BUTENES REACT WITH METHANOL

16. TEMPERATURES IN REACTIVE COLUMN TAME PROCESS COLUMN

17. TAME PROCESS ? EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION H2O IS USED TO EXTRACT MeOH


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