The New Demographics: Implications for Regional Planning
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The New Demographics: Implications for Regional Planning. Frank Wen Senior Economist. Demographics . Fertility rate--birth Life expectancy—death Immigration/emigration Population--number of people, by age/gender/race/ethnicity Life-cycle activities/events-from birth to death

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Demographics l.jpg
Demographics

  • Fertility rate--birth

  • Life expectancy—death

  • Immigration/emigration

  • Population--number of people, by age/gender/race/ethnicity

  • Life-cycle activities/events-from birth to death

  • Socioeconomic/cultural characteristics and behaviors

  • Outcomes/Impacts/Implications


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Total U.S. Fertility Rate: 1940 - 2000

TFR=2,130 in 2000, surpassing the “Replacement Rate” for the first time in 30 years

Replacement Rate


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Historic California Births vs. Historic U.S. Births

CA’s Baby Bust was much shorter than for the U.S.CA’s Echo Boomer generation was 50% bigger than its predecessor



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Is Demography Destiny?

Demography matters!

Three examples closely linked to population and age distributions:

  • FBI Uniform Crime Report

  • Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Growth vs. Population Growth

  • Forecasts Building Permits


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U.S. Crime Rate From 1982-2001

(Number of Offenses per 100,000 Inhabitants)

Source: FBI Uniform Crime Report


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State/Region/LA Crime Rate

(Number of Offenses per 100,000 Inhabitants)

Source: California Department of Justice




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Percent Distribution of Arrests by Ages: 1995-2001

Source: FBI 1995 and 2001Uniform Crime Reports


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Population Growth for 16 to 24 Age Group

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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Population Growth for 20 t0 29 Age Group

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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Population Growth for the Two Age Groups

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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Demography Matters

Three examples closely linked to population and age distributions:

  • FBI Uniform Crime Report

  • Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Growth vs. Population Growth

  • Forecasts Building Permits


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Population Growth vs.VMT Growth

Source: State of the Region, 2002, Prepared by SCAG


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Licensed Driver Rate (Percent by Age)

Source: National Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) 1995


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Population Growth for 16 to 24 Age Group

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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Population Growth for 20 t0 29 Age Group

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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Demography Matters

Three examples closely linked to population and age distributions:

  • FBI Uniform Crime Report

  • Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Growth vs. Population Growth

  • Forecasts Building Permits






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Apartment Demand Will Surge As People in Their 20s Enter the Market

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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First-time Home Buyers, 25-34 Increasing Through 2025 Market

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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Repeat/Second Home/Vacation Home Buyers, 35-54 Market

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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Age 55-64 Population At Peak Market

Source: State of California, Department of Finance, Race/Ethnic Population with Age and Sex Detail, 1970-2040. Sacramento, CA, December 1998.


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Rapid Growth in Elderly Population is Inevitable Market

  • Population aging is primarily due to:

    • Declining fertility rates

    • Increasing life expectancy

  • Population aging can be measured by:

    • Average or median age of the population

    • Elderly dependent ratio:

Population age 65 and abovePopulation between 20 and 64


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Share of Population Growth by Dependent Group Market

31.4%

27.5%

29.7%

11.1%

1975-2000

2000-2025

70%

Under 20

60%

Above 65

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%


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Share of Population Growth Marketby Ethnicity

19.1%

22.6%

81.9%

74.0%

White

Hispanic

Asian

Black

AI

110%

5.0%

100%

2.5%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

-1.9%

-3.8%

-10%

1975-2000

2000-2025


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U.S. Annual Compound Growth Rates Marketof Salary Jobs and Labor Force


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Who Are Baby Boomers? Market

A Snapshot as of 2000


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Government Related Services MarketPer Capita

$18,000

$16,000

Health Care

$14,000

$12,000

$10,000

Social Security

Public Education

$8,000

$6,000

$4,000

$2,000

$0

0-19

20-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75-84

85 and

Above

Other Retirement

All Other Public Transfers


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Projected Share of Households Marketby Age Cohort: 2000-2040

75+

55-64

35-44

15-24

45-54

25-34

65-74

Source: SCAG Preliminary Draft 2004 RTP Trend Forecasts.


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HH Income Before Taxes Market

Source: 2000 Consumer Expenditure Survey


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HH Average Annual Expenditures Market

Source: 2000 Consumer Expenditure Survey


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Major Consumer Expenditure Categories Market

Budget Share by Age Groups in 2000

Misc./Other

Cash Contrib.

Transportation

Housing

Food

Insurance/Pen.

Health Care

Apparel/Service

Alchohol Bev.


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Personal Income Taxes Paid by Californians Market

Source: California State Controller’s Office, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 1997 Current Population Survey



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Trends and Forecasts Suggest: Market

  • The region’s economy will likely grow very slowly for a very long time after 2010, and will be prone to recession!

  • Living standards and per capita income will rise more slowly.

  • The region, like the U.S., will face fiscal challenges.

  • Education and workforce training policies should encourage increasing labor force supply, and put more emphasis on on older workers.


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Trends and Forecasts Suggest: Market

  • To ensure that long term planning is on track to address “who are we becoming and what challenges are ahead,” future trends—planners and decision-makers must take into account not simply growth projections, but the components and characteristics of the forecasts (e.g., ethnic and age cohort distributions).


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Transportation Planning Market

  • It is prudent to conduct systematic evaluation of long-range transportation plan components in order to assess impacts of slow future economic growth.

  • Revenue forecasts need to take into account the challenges resulting from population aging and demographic shifts.

  • Transportation demand forecast models need adjustment to reflect the higher proportion of elderly households in the future.

  • Long-range transportation planning should emphasize safety, security, and accessibility goals-which which will become more important to an aging society.


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Labor Force Training & MarketWorkforce Investment

  • The region’s economy will likely grow very slowly for a very long time after 2010, and will post great challenges to the region.

  • The core of this concern is originated from population aging and lack of labor force growth.

  • Labor force training and workforce investment play critical roles in addressing these challenges.

  • Education is the key.

  • In the long term, efforts should be targeted on population groups with the lowest labor force participation rates, the least educational attainment, and highest unemployment rates.

  • The earning disparities between gender, age, and race/ethnicity should be carefully investigated to correct likely “inequality”.

  • Immigration policy needs to be adjusted to attract high-quality labor force.


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What Are the New Demographics? Market

  • Tomorrow’s elderly will behave differently from today’s elderly--Baby Boomers will be different from their parents. But how?

  • Some of the elderly workers will stay longer in the labor force. But to what extent?

  • Will Baby Boomers age in place? What are their next moves?

  • Where will young Hispanics and others in the workforce be able to afford apartments and starter homes in our supply constrained, high priced housing markets?


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What Are the New Demographics? Market

  • Will immigrants continue to cram into crowded quarters as they come to the region for jobs?

  • Are mixed use developments an emerging trend driven by new lifestyle demands of empty-nest boomers in their mid 50s?

  • Will the different lifestyle and housing needs of aging Baby Boomers and young Hispanics shape development patterns and affect voting decisions on land use issues?


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Summary Market

  • Demography is destiny!

  • The region’s population is aging and will be more diversified

  • Population growth by age cohorts provides valuable information on timing and phasing of future growth challenges

  • The slow growth of employment after 2010 is particularly worrisome, the region needs collectively to communicate this demographic trends, to build up consensus, and to assess the likely impacts in every aspects of our life and regional planning


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Summary Market

  • How do we assure social equity goal achievement and a healthy economic structure for the region?

  • An aging society will also generate new opportunities--different growing industries, ethnic markets, and communities

  • Population aging will pose challenges and cause crisis, however, challenges and crisis can be met with a reasonable set of policy choices and early-on planning.


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Thank You! Market

Questions?

Comments?

Visit us on the Web at:http://www.scag.ca.gov/economy


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